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Solar Energy is a site where we explain the most important elements related to solar energy. The intention of its authors is to give general information about everything that surrounds this technology and a review of the related aspects of physics. If you haven't found what you were looking for on the web, here is a list of all the pages we have published.

  • What Is Solar Energy?

    Solar energy is energy that comes from the Sun. It is a renewable energy source that converts solar radiation into electricity or thermal energy.

  • Solar Radiation

    Solar radiation is the amount of energy from the sun that is received on a certain surface and time.

  • Radiant Energy

    Radiant energy is the electromagnetic wave energy contained in visible light, X-rays, and other forms of radiation.

  • Solar Irradiance

    Solar irradiance is a magnitude that indicates the power received from solar radiation per unit area. What is the difference with solar irradiation?

  • Incoming Solar Radiation

    Find out how solar radiation spreads in the atmosphere and on the earth's surface depending on the type of radiation.

  • Variations of Solar Radiation

    Solar fluctuations are variations in the amount of radiation emitted by the Sun, characterizes changes over time, its spectral distribution and the phenomena that accompany these changes.

  • Solar Maximum and Minimum

    The solar maximums and minimums are the times when the Sun has a greater and lesser solar activity respectively within a solar cycle.

  • Solar Radiation Mesurement

    The solar radiation that reaches the Earth is divided into different types of radiation: direct, indirect and infrared. How are measurements made for each one of them?

  • Advantages and Limitations

    The pros and cons of solar energy. We analyze its advantages and limitations in terms of costs, environment, and efficiency compared to other energy sources.

    • Advantages of Solar Energy

      Analysis of the multiple advantages of solar energy. We list the main benefits that we are awarded with some examples.

  • Disadvantages of Solar Energy

    Analysis of the disadvantages of solar energy compared to other sources of energy. The characteristics of an installation could imply that a facility would not be viable in certain cases.

  • Solar Panels and Collectors

    A solar panel is a device for harnessing solar energy. There are solar panels to obtain electricity or thermal energy.

    • Hybrid Solar Panel

      A hybrid solar panel allows the solar energy to be converted part into electrical energy and part into thermal energy.

  • Active Solar Energy

    Active solar energy are systems that take advantage of solar radiation using mechanical or electrical elements to improve performance.

    • Example of Active Solar Energy

      A solar thermal power plant is an example of active solar energy. Find out what external active systems you need to function.

  • Hybrid Solar System

    Hybrid solar system is a photovoltaic system that includes other sources that generate electricity. These sources can be diesel or wind generators.

  • Active Solar Heating

    Active solar heating systems use solar energy to heat a fluid and then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system for later use.

  • Passive Solar Energy

    Passive solar energy is a technique to design buildings taking advantage of solar energy without transforming artificially.

    • Bioclimatic Architecture

      Bioclimatic architecture is a type of ecological construction more sustainable with the environment and reduces energy consumption in a natural way.

    • Bioclimatic Strategies

      In architecture there are strategies to take advantage of natural resources to obtain thermal comfort in a home and reduce electricity consumption.

  • Passive Solar Energy Transfer

    Systems to consider for heat transfer in a passive solar energy installation. Mechanisms for the transmission of heat by conduction, convection and radiation.

  • History of Solar Energy

    Strategies and inventions created by mankind for the use of solar energy throughout history.

  • Thermodynamic Solar Energy

    Thermodynamic solar energy is a combination of aerothermal and solar thermal energy.

  • Differences Between Thermal and Photovoltaic

    Thermal solar and photovoltaic energy share the same energy source but there are several differences between them. Which system is better?

  • Photovoltaic Systems

    Photovoltaic solar energy consists of the direct transformation of solar radiation into electrical energy. Explanation of the two types of photovoltaic systems.

    • Photovoltaic Effect

      The photovoltaic effect is the effect that allows transforming solar energy into electrical energy through photovoltaic cells.

    • Photons

      Photons are the particles that carry energy in the different forms of electromagnetic radiation.

  • Applications of Solar Cells

    Applications in which the use of photovoltaic solar energy in different fields. Examples of photovoltaic installations in isolated systems.

    • Luminescent Solar Concentrator

      Luminescent solar concentrators capture solar radiation over a large area to generate electricity cheaply and efficiently.

  • Electric Heater and Electric Boiler

    Electric water heaters and electric water heaters are two devices whose function is to heat water for the home using electricity.

  • Parts of a PV System

    Description of the main parts that make up a photovoltaic system. Components of off-grid and grid-connected systems with descriptions.

    • PV Solar Panel

      A photovoltaic solar panel is an element designed to convert solar energy into electricity. Types and characteristics of photovoltaic panels.

    • Solar Cells and Photodiodes

      Find out what are solar cells and photodiodes and their differences. Description of their composition and operation principles.

    • Types of Solar Cells

      There are different types of solar cells depending on the nature and characteristics of the materials used. The most common type is the crystalline silicon cell.

  • Thin-film Solar Cells

    A thin film solar cell is a second generation solar cell that is made by depositing one or more thin layers.

  • Silicon

    Silicon is a chemical element with excellent semiconductor properties. It is a component widely used in photovoltaic panels.

    • Polycrystalline Silicon

      Polycrystalline silicon is a material that is used to make solar panels and in electronics. Here we explain it to you.

  • Monocrystalline Silicon

    Monocrystalline silicon is the material used to make photovoltaic cells. It has a great ability to absorb radiation.

  • Types of Photovoltaic Panels

    There are several types of photovoltaic solar panels. The most common types are monocrystalline photovoltaic panels, polycrystalline solar panels, and thin-film solar panels.

  • Solar Panel Components

    A photovoltaic panel is made up of, in addition to photovoltaic cells, a set of elements to give it robustness and functionality.

  • Tilt Angle and Orientation

    Optimization of the inclination, orientation and location of photovoltaic solar panels and solar collectors in a solar installation to maximize the use of renewable energy.

  • Efficiency

    Solar panels efficiency is the percentage of solar energy that is transformed into electrical energy. What does it depend on? How can it be improved?

  • Solar Panel Peak Power

    Solar panel peak power is the maximum electrical power that a photovoltaic panel can generate under certain conditions.

  • Solar Batteries

    Solar batteries accumulate the energy generated in photovoltaic panels. Operating principle and types of batteries.

  • Power Inverter

    Power inverters transform direct current into alternating current and are used in photovoltaic solar energy systems.

  • Solar Charge Controller

    The solar charge controller regulates the charging and discharging process of solar batteries, improving efficiency and safety.

  • Solar Tracker

    A solar tracker is a device that orients the solar panels to the Sun. Advantages and disadvantages of these solar systems.

  • Balance of System (BOS)

    The system balance represents the components of a solar photovoltaic system with the exception of the photovoltaic modules.

  • Grid-connected PV System

    Grid-connected PV systems have the possibility of selling the surplus energy generated to the electricity company.

    • Diagram and Components

      Components and diagram of a photovoltaic solar energy installation connected to the electricity grid. Photovoltaic panels, power inverters and meters.

  • Off-grid Solar Systems

    Off-grid solar systems are solar power facilities that do not have access to the electricity grid. All the energy generated is for own consumption.

    • Electric Accumulators

      Electric accumulators are responsible for storing the energy generated by photovoltaic panels to be able to supply when necessary.

  • Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    A solar photovoltaic power plant is a set of solar installations destined to generate electricity through solar radiation.

    • The Largest Plants in the World

      Description and characteristics of the largest photovoltaic plants in the world. India, China and the United States are the undisputed leaders.

  • Floating Solar Power Plants

    Floating solar power plants are photovoltaic plants installed in water. The main floating plants are located in India and China.

  • Thermal Solar Energy

    Solar thermal energy converts solar energy into thermal energy. It is used to obtain hot water or electricity in large power plants.

    • Solar Thermal Applications

      Discover 8 examples of solar thermal energy applications. Domestic hot water, concentrated solar power systems, and much more.

    • Domestic Hot Water

      The use of solar energy to obtain domestic hot water is one of the most efficient resources to save energy. Find out how it works.

    • Thermosyphon Systems

      Thermosiphon systems present a natural circulation of the working fluid based on convection in fluids at different temperatures.

  • Forced Circulation Solar System

    Forced circulation solar water heaters are solar thermal energy installations in which a water pump is needed for the circulation of water.

  • Solar Fuel

    The generation of fuel through solar energy is a technique based on generating chemical reactions using solar radiation.

  • Cost Effectiveness

    The profitability of a thermal solar energy installation depends on the calculation of factors such as solar availability or dimensioning.

  • Thermoelectric Power

    Solar thermoelectric power allows the generation of electrical energy using solar energy. Solar radiation is transformed into heat and later into electricity.

  • Solar Thermal Power Plant

    A solar thermal power plant is an industrial facility in which solar radiation is used to generate electricity.

  • Concentrated Solar Power

    Looking for ways to develop sustainable energy is a priority. Here, you will learn what concentrated solar power is and why it's an important part of our future.

  • Solar Thermal System Components

    The components that a solar thermal energy system needs in order to work. The main ones are solar collectors, a heat exchanger and an accumulator.

    • Solar Thermal Collectors

      The solar thermal collector is the component of a solar thermal facility responsible for capturing the heat that comes from solar radiation.

    • Flat Plate Collector

      A flat plate collector is a kind of solar panel. Its function is to transform solar energy into heat.

  • Parabolic Solar Collector

    Parabolic solar collectors are specially designed to obtain high temperatures. Find out how they work and what they are used for.

  • Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors

    An evacuated tube solar collector is a set of cylindrical tubes with better performance than the flat solar collector.

  • Solar Water Tank

    A solar accumulator is an element in charge of storing the energy obtained through solar energy for when it is necessary to use it.

  • Heat Exchanger

    A heat exchanger is a device designed to transfer heat between two media that are separated by a barrier or that are in contact.

  • Solar Concentrator

    A solar concentrator is a device that concentrates solar radiation at one point. It is mainly used in solar thermal energy installations.

  • Heliostat

    A heliostat is a device used to direct and concentrate the Sun's rays. Description of its use, the advantages in solar plants and its design.

  • Low-temperature Solar Power Plant

    Low-temperature solar thermal energy takes advantage of solar energy to obtain temperatures below 65ºC. How and what is it used for?

  • Medium Temperature Solar Thermal Energy

    Medium temperature solar thermal energy is used in applications that require temperatures between 100ºC and 400ºC.

  • Solar Furnace

    A solar furnace is a structure that concentrates solar radiation to produce high temperatures using concave mirrors.

  • Solar System

    The solar system is the star system that composed by the Sun and the objects that orbit around it. How it was formed, and the main features.

    • The Sun

      The Sun is the main source of energy on Earth. Characteristics and data. Internal structure. And how is the sun's energy generated?

    • Structure of the Sun

      The structure of the Sun is made up of 6 layers differentiated between internal and external layers. The outer layers make up the solar atmosphere.

    • Inner Layers of the Sun

      The internal structure of the Sun is responsible for generating energy. It is made up of three layers or zones.

  • Solar Atmosphere: Outer Layers

    The Sun is made up of 3 inner layers. The photosphere is the layer closest to the nucleus, the chromosphere and the chronoa which is the outermost layer.

  • Importance

    The Sun is the source of life on Earth. The life of animals and plants depends on it. It provides heat, energy, light and allows the Earth to spin.

  • Solar Eclipse

    A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon comes between the Earth and the Sun causing the sun to be covered.

  • Solar System Planets

    The solar system is made up of 8 planets divided into the inner planets and the outer planets. Brief description of each of them.

  • The Earth

    Earth is the planet where we live. It is the third in the solar system and the only one that meets the necessary conditions for life.

    • Layers of the Earth

      The Earth is made up of 3 inner layers. Description of the essential characteristics of each one of them.

    • Atmosphere

      The atmosphere is a set of layers of gases that surround the Earth. Its existence is of vital importance for life on the planet.

  • Layers of the Atmosphere

    The atmosphere is a layer of gases that surrounds the surface of the Earth. These gases are divided into so-called layers with different characteristics.

    • Troposphere

      The troposphere is the layer closest to the earth's surface. Therefore, it is the layer in which living beings live.

  • Stratosphere

    The stratosphere is the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the mesosphere. It has a thickness of 30 km.

  • Ozone Layer

    The ozone layer is the part of Earth's atmosphere with high ozone levels. This layer prevents the entrance of most of the solar radiation, which allows life.

  • Earth's Magnetic Field

    The Earth's magnetic field is the magnetic field generated by the internal activity of the Earth. Discover the origin and its main characteristics.

    • Magnetic Field

      A magnetic field is a field of force produced by moving electrical charges. Explanation with examples.

  • Imaginary Lines on Earth

    The imaginary lines on Earth are lines drawn on the planisphere map creating a defined grid used to locate any planet point.

  • Climate Change

    The term climate change refers to variations in Earth's climate of one or more years. What causes it and what consequences does it have.

    • What Is the Greenhouse Effect?

      The greenhouse effect allows solar radiation to pass through the atmosphere of a planet but makes it difficult to release thermal energy from it.

  • Global Warming

    Global warming is the process of gradually increasing the temperature of planet Earth. The main cause is the increase in greenhouse gases.

  • Clean Energies

    A clean energy is a source of energy in which pollutants are not generated. Characteristics and examples.

  • Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis is a chemical process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially using the energy of solar radiation.

    • Stages of Photosynthesis

      Photosynthesis is the way plants convert solar energy into nutrients. This process is carried out in two stages.

  • Distance of the Sun to the Earth

    The average distance from the Sun to the Earth is about 150 million km. However, this distance varies as it orbits the Sun.

  • Energy Sources

    Energy sources are the resources available to man that are used to generate electricity, work or heat.

    • Renewable Energy

      Renewable energies come from inexhaustible natural sources. Advantage. Types of renewable resources and examples.

    • Geothermal Energy

      Geothermal energy is a renewable energy that takes advantage of the heat in the inner layers of the earth. It is a clean, efficient and constant energy.

    • Geothermal

      Geothermal energy is the discipline that studies the set of natural phenomena involved in the production and transfer of heat or thermal energy from the interior of the Earth.

  • Uses of Geothermal Energy

    The uses of geothermal energy can be divided into three main fields: the direct use of heat, heating and cooling and the generation of electricity.

    • Geothermal Heat Pump

      The geothermal heat pump is an air conditioning and heating system for buildings that exploits the heat from the ground.

  • Electricity Production

    Obtaining electrical energy through geothermal energy. The geometric power plants convert the heat inside the earth into electricity.

  • Advantages and Disadvantages

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained from the heat stored inside the Earth. Its use implies certain advantages and disadvantages.

    • Advantages

      Geothermal energy has certain advantages compared to other renewable and non-renewable energy sources.

  • Disadvantages

    Geothermal energy, despite being a renewable energy, has certain drawbacks in different aspects.

  • Origin of the Earth's Heat

    The origin of terrestrial heat is the sum of physical and chemical processes that take place inside it. Processes and types of deposits.

  • Geothermal Power Plant

    A geothermal power plant is a facility where electricity is generated by geothermal energy, that is, heat energy inside the Earth.

  • Wind Power

    Wind energy is a renewable energy whose origin is the wind. It transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity.

    • Advantages and Disadvantages

      Learn about the advantages and disadvantages of using wind energy compared to other sources of renewable or non-renewable energy.

  • Wind Turbines

    A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Description and types of windmills.

    • Parts of a Wind Turbine

      Parts of a wind turbine and its basic characteristics. Operation of the most important components of windmills.

  • Hydropower

    Hydropower takes advantage of the force of water to obtain energy. How do you get it? We explain it to you with real examples.

    • Hydroelectric Power

      We explain how hydroelectric power works. How important are dams to generate electricity? What are the methods to get electricity from water power?

  • Hydroelectric Power Plant

    A hydropower plant is a facility designed to generate electricity by dropping a volume of water from a certain height.

  • Mini-hydraulic Power Plant

    A mini-hydro power plant is a power station, which works using hydraulic energy. They are characterized by the fact of having a reduced installed power.

  • Water Turbines

    Water turbines allow the force of water to be converted into mechanical energy. Discover the different hydraulic turbine designs and how they work.

    • Kaplan Turbine

      The Kaplan turbine is an ideal hydraulic turbine for small heads and with large flows. Here we explain why it has such a high performance.

  • Francis Turbine

    The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine that combines both radial flow and axial flow concepts. It is the type of turbine most used in hydroelectric plants.

  • Turbina Pelton

    A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine. It is one of the most efficient turbines of the types of turbines used in hydroelectric power plants.

  • Advantages and Disadvantages

    Find out the advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic energy. Is it really a clean and sustainable energy source?

  • History of Hydraulic Energy

    Evolution of hydraulic energy throughout history. From the Persian Empire to the present day with the development of hydraulic turbines.

  • Biomass Energy

    Biomass is made up of biological waste (plants, animals and algae). Find out what it is for and how you can get energy from it.

  • Tidal Energy

    Tidal energy is the energy obtained from the movements of the water caused by the tides. It is a renewable, clean and expanding source of energy.

  • Wave Power

    Wave power is the energy produced by the movement of the waves and the capture to apply it to carry out useful work.

  • Blue Energy

    Blue energy is the energy that comes from osmosis. Such a difference can be used in places where fresh water flows into the sea.

  • Conventional Energy Sources

    Non-renewable energy is energy generated through an exhaustible energy source. For example, fossil fuels and nuclear energy.

    • Fossil Fuels

      Fossil fuels are those fuels caused by the partial decomposition of organic matter millions of years ago. Coal, oil and natural gas

    • Petroleum

      Petroleum is a fossil fuel. It is a complex non-homogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons formed by hydrogen and carbon.

    • Petroleum Formation

      Petroleum is a derivative of old fossilized organic materials and algae. We explain petroleum formation step by step.

  • Coal

    Coal is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock. It is used as fossil fuel for its high calorific value.

  • Gas Natural

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel. It is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons. It has a very high calorific value.

  • Fossil Energy

    Fossil energy is energy that comes from the combustion of fossil fuels. It is a non-renewable energy source.

  • Fracking

    Fracking is the exploitation of the pressure of a fluid, to create propagate a fracture in the subsoil for the extraction of oil or gas.

  • Biofuels

    Biofuels are fuels obtained from biomass or organic waste. They are also called biofuels or agrofuels.

    • Generations of Biofuels

      The different generations of biofuels indicate the evolution that the production of this energy resource has had over time.

  • Uses of Biofuels

    Biofuels are used to generate different types of liquid fuels. In this section we analyze the pros and cons of each of them.

  • Nuclear Energy

    Nuclear energy is the energy obtained from the division (nuclear fission) or union (nuclear fusion) of an atom.

  • Steam Power Plant

    A thermal power plant is a plant that generates electricity by transforming heat. Fossil fuels are normally used as a heat source.

  • Electricity

    Electricity is the form of energy due to the movement of electrons or gates. Learn in a simple way how electrical energy is transmitted.

    • Types of Electricity

      Electricity is due to the presence and flow of electrical charges. Depending on whether the loads are moving or not, there are two types: static and dynamic.

    • Static Electricity

      Static electricity is the passage of electrons from one material to another. This transfer usually occurs by heat. Examples.

  • Electric Current

    Electric current is the flow or movement of electrical charges, usually through a wire or any other conductive material.

    • Types of Electric Current

      The types of electric current are the different ways by which electric charges can move through a conductor.

    • Alternating Current

      Alternating current is a type of current characterized by changing over time, either in intensity or in direction, at regular intervals.

  • Direct Current

    Direct current is a type of electrical current where the direction of movement of the flow of electrical does not charge its direction.

  • Three-phase System

    A three-phase system indicates a combined system of 3 alternating current circuits that have the same frequency.

  • Electrical Charge

    Electric charge is the property that certain particles have to be a source of electromagnetic fields. Types and characteristics of loads.

  • Electric Current Intensity

    Current intensity is the electrical charge that passes through a section of the conductor in a unit of time. In the SI of measures it is expressed in amps.

    • Ampere

      The ampere is the base unit of the international measurement system that is used to measure the intensity of electric current.

  • Amp-hour Ah

    The Ampere-hour Ah and the milliampere-hours mAh are the units used to specify the charge capacity of a battery.

  • Voltage

    The voltage or electrical potential difference indicates the difference in electrical voltage between two points in an electrical circuit.

    • Volt. Tension Unit

      The volt is the unit of electrical potential of the international measurement system. It is the tension between two points of a conductor.

  • Rated Voltage

    The rated voltage is the specific potential difference for which an electrical installation or equipment is designed.

  • Electric Power

    Electric power is the amount of energy delivered or absorbed by an element in a given time.

    • Unit Power: Watt

      The watt is the unit of electrical power, it measures the energy per unit of a second. One watt equals one July per second.

    • Kilowatt

      The kilowatt is a unit of power equivalent to 1000 watts. The watt is the unit of international system, equivalent to one joule per second.

  • Electricity Generation

    Electricity generation is the process of generating electricity from primary energy sources usually with the help of generators.

    • Electric Generator

      An electric generator is a device designed to produce electricity from mechanical energy. How it works and types of generators.

  • Electrical Power Plants

    An electrical power plant is a facility capable of generating and supplying electricity. Find out what types of exchanges exist and how they work.

  • Electrical Circuit

    An electrical circuit is a system formed by a set of interconnected electrical elements. Find out how it works.

  • Electrical Circuit Generator

    The generator of an electric circuit is a device capable of creating a difference in electric potential at its terminals.

    • Galvanic Cell

      A galvanic cell or voltaic cell is an electrochemical cell that obtains an electrical current from chemical energy.

  • Electric Cables

    Electric current flows through electrical cables. We explain the characteristics of the cables, what types exist and the colors used.

  • Electric Conductivity

    An electrical conductor is a material in which electrons can pass well. For example, electrical cables are constructed from conductors of electricity.

  • Electrical Resistance

    An electrical resistance is an element of an electrical circuit that hinders the passage of electrical current. Find out what happens and what it is used for.

  • Electric Field

    An electric field is a force field generated in space by the presence of electric charges or a time-varying magnetic field.

  • Laws of Electricity

    Laws and theorems developed throughout history to study and understand how an electric current acts in a circuit.

    • Ohm's Law

      Ohm's law is a formula used in electricity to relate current, voltage, and electrical resistance.

  • Joule's Law

    Joule's law is a physical law that expresses the relationship between the heat generated and the electrical current that passes through a conductor over time.

  • Ampère's Law

    Ampère's law is one of the fundamental laws of classical electrodynamics. This law relates the intensity of current to the magnetic field.

  • Coulomb's Law

    Coulomb's law establishes the force exerted by two electric charges separated by a certain distance from each other. Description with examples.

  • Faraday's Law

    Faraday's law expresses the appearance of a voltage in an electric circuit, when the latter is stationary in a magnetic field.

    • Faraday Cage

      A Faraday cage is a cage-like structure that prevents static electric fields from penetrating inside.

  • Michael Faraday

    Faraday was an accomplished scientist with numerous contributions in the fields of chemistry, electricity, and electromagnetism.

  • Gauss's Law

    The flux of an electric field through a closed surface is the ratio of the charge within the surface divided by the dielectric constant of the medium.

  • Watt's Law

    Watt's law is a law of electricity that relates electrical power to voltage and current in an electrical circuit or appliance.

  • Lenz Law

    Lenz law states that the direction of the induced current is always such that it opposes the cause of the one it generates.

  • Thermodynamics

    Thermodynamics studies the movement of heat between a physical system. This study is determined by thermodynamic principles.

    • Laws of Thermodynamics

      Thermodynamics is based primarily on a set of four universally valid laws when applied to thermodynamic systems.

    • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

      The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • First Law of Thermodynamics

    First law of thermodynamics: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, it remains constant. Principle of energy conservation.

    • Limitations of the First Law

      The first principle of thermodynamics does not explain everything about the development of a thermodynamic process. Here we explain the three limitations of this law.

  • Examples

    Examples to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics. Just like the law of conservation of energy: energy only transforms.

  • History

    Beginnings of the first law of thermodynamics and the history of thermodynamics in general. Works by Mayer, Joule and Carnot.

  • Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Explanation of the second law of thermodynamics. Its relation to entropy and machine performance. Examples related to the second principle.

  • Third Law of Thermodynamics

    The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a system at absolute zero temperature is a well-defined constant.

  • Thermodynamic System

    A thermodynamic system is a defined macroscopic region of the universe that is studied from the principles of thermodynamics.

    • Open System

      An open system can exchange energy and matter with its surroundings. Explanation and examples of open systems in everyday life.

  • System Closed

    A closed system can exchange energy (heat and work) but not matter with the surroundings. Examples in real life.

  • Thermodynamic State

    A thermodynamic state is a set of property values ​​of a thermodynamic system that must be specified in order to reproduce the system.

  • Thermodynamic Cycles

    A thermodynamic cycle is a circuit of thermodynamic transformations with the objective of obtaining work from two sources of heat.

    • Rankine Cycle

      The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle with the purpose of transforming heat into work. Operation and actual uses of the cycle.

  • Thermodynamic Processes

    A thermodynamic process is the evolution of the thermodynamic quantities relative to a given thermodynamic system.

    • Isothermal Process

      An isothermal process is a thermodynamic transformation at constant temperature. Examples and effects on ideal gases.

  • Adiabatic Process

    An adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which the system does not exchange heat with its surroundings. Examples of adiabatic processes.

    • Adiabatic Wall

      An adiabatic wall is a wall that does not allow heat transfer from one side to the other. Simple explanation with everyday examples.

  • Diathermic Wall

    A diathermic wall is a thermodynamic wall that allows heat transfer between two systems but mass transfer is not possible.

  • Isobaric Process

    In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a process that is carried out at constant pressure. Definition and examples of isobaric processes.

  • Isochoric Process

    An isochoric process is a thermodynamic process that occurs in a constant volume. In an isometric process, the pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature.

  • Thermodynamic Properties

    A thermodynamic property is a characteristic that allows changes in a working substance. They can be classified between intensive and extensive.

    • Temperature

      Temperature is a magnitude that highlights the thermal energy of a body. It is represented by the Celsius, Kelvin and Farenheid scales.

    • Temperature Scales

      The temperature scale is a methodology for calibrating the temperature of an object. The main temperature scales are Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Rankine.

    • Celsius Scale

      The degree Celsius (or centigrade degree) is the unit of temperature on the Celsius scale. Scale definition and conversion formulas.

  • Kelvin

    Kelvin is the temperature unit of the International System. A difference of one kelvin is equivalent to that of one degree Celsius.

  • Fahrenheit Scale

    The Fahrenheit degree is a unit of temperature. The Fahrenheit scale is used in Anglo-Saxon countries, especially in the United States.

  • Measurement Tools

    The different types of instruments for measuring temperature. Description of the different types and what they are for.

    • Temperature Sensor

      A temperature sensor is a device that measures temperature through electrical signals. Find out what they are used for and what type they can be.

  • Examples of Temperature

    Temperature is a way of measuring the heat that a body has. We explain some examples of temperatures for comparison.

    • Melting Point

      The melting point is the temperature at which a substance goes from a solid to a liquid state.

  • Boiling Point

    The boiling temperature of pure water at sea level is 100 degrees Celsius. However, under certain conditions this is not the case. Why?

  • Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius

    Formula to go from the Fahrenheit scale to the Celsius scale, the two most used scales to measure temperature.

  • Heat

    Heat in physics is the energy that is transferred as a result of a chemical or nuclear reaction between two systems or between two parts of the same system.

    • Calorimeter

      A calorimeter a device for measuring the amount of heat released or absorbed in any physical, chemical, or biological process.

  • Heat Transfer

    Heat transfer is the flow of heat between two bodies at different temperatures. The transfer can be done by radiation, conduction or convection.

  • Thermal Energy

    Thermal energy is the part of the internal energy of a thermodynamic system in equilibrium that is proportional to its absolute temperature.

  • Internal Energy

    In thermodynamics, internal energy is the total energy that a thermodynamic system contains, the sum of the internal potential energy and the internal kinetic energy.

  • Entropy

    Entropy is a magnitude defined to predict the evolution of thermodynamic systems. It is an extensive state function.

  • Enthalpy

    Enthalpy is a state function that measures the amount of energy that a system can exchange with the outside.

  • Difference Between Heat and Temperature

    Heat and temperature are two related thermodynamic properties that are often confused. Find out what differences exist between them.

  • Thermodynamics Chemistry

    Thermodynamics chemistry is the branch of thermodynamics that studies the thermal effects caused by chemical reactions, called the heat of reaction.

  • History of Thermodynamics

    The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental piece in the history of physics, chemistry, and science in general. Timeline of discoveries and investigations.

    • William John Macquorn Rankine

      William John Macquorn Rankine was a Scottish engineer and physicist. He wrote standard works of mechanics, steam theory and practice, civil engineering principles and mechanical construction principles.

  • Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

    Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was a German physicist who invented the temperature scale that bears his name. Also, he invented the first thermometers to measure temperature.

  • Geometry

    Geometry deals with determining the dimensions, shapes, relative position of figures and their properties.

    • Geometric Figures

      A geometric figure is a set of points connected to each other. Some examples of geometric figures are the point, the line, and the triangle.

  • Flat Shapes

    Flat shapes are geometric shapes that can be represented on a plane, that is, in two dimensions.

    • List of Shapes with Names

      There is a list of the main geometric shapes with the name, a brief description, and an image to identify them.

  • Circle

    A circle is a plane geometric figure whose points are equidistant from a central point. Formulas for calculating the area, perimeter and diameter.

  • Triangle

    A triangle is an undeformable geometric shape composed of three edges, three vertices. It is used in a myriad of applications.

  • Square

    A square is a regular polygon with four equal sides and four right angles between those sides. Formulas to calculate area and perimeter.

  • Pentagon

    The pentagon is a geometric figure made up of five sides and five edges. To calculate the area of ​​a regular polygon you just have to use the following formulas.

  • Trapezoid

    Characteristics of a trapezoid with drawings of the different types. Formulas to calculate the area and perimeter.

  • Solid Shapes

    Solid shapes are three-dimensional figures that occupy a volume. They are composed of faces, edges, and vertices.

    • Polyhedra

      A polyhedron is a 3D figure limited only by a finite number of polygons that bound a finite volume.

  • Sphere

    A sphere is a geometric body in that all points on its surface are equidistant from a central point.

  • Toroid

    A toroid is a surface of revolution. Characteristics and calculation of the surface and volume of these three-dimensional bodies.

  • Prisms

    A prism is a polyhedron formed by two equal bases and lateral faces formed by rectangles. Discover the different types of polyhedra

  • Blog

    Blog about solar energy. Find here interesting articles, opinions and studies that help you better understand the world of solar energy.

    • Geometric Shapes

      General and specific information on geometric shapes: calculation of areas, volumes and perimeters. Definition and characteristics of the main shapes.

  • Right Hand Rule

    The right hand rule is used in mathematics and physics to find the direction of the vector that results from a cross product.

  • How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?

    Since the discovery of electricity, its use has grown exponentially. Electricity generation affects the environment in the following way.

  • How Does Solar Energy Save Money?

    Solar energy is a good opportunity to save energy and reduce the cost of a home's electricity bill. Find out how to do it!

  • What Is the War of the Currents?

    The war of the currents is a term for the fight between the manufacturers of the two different feeding systems, alternating current and direct current in the United States.

  • Stirling Engine

    A Stirling engine is a thermal machine based on the heating and cooling of a gas. It was invented as an alternative to the steam engine.

  • Is Solar Energy Kinetic or Potential?

    Kinetic and potential energies are two types of energy that are interrelated with each other. We explain the differences between them and their relationship with solar energy.

  • What Does Photovoltaic Mean?

    Photovoltaic is everything related to the conversion of light into electrical energy. Photovoltaic panels develop this concept.

  • What Is the Thermal Sensation?

    Thermal sensation is a measure of the sensation of cold or heat that humans perceive in the air as a function of wind, the Sun or humidity.

  • What Are Electrolytes?

    An electrolyte is a substance that when dissolved is electrically conductive. They are important in engineering (batteries) and in health (minerals in the blood).

  • Frequent Questions

    Common questions and answers about home solar installations. Photovoltaic and thermal, amortization, maintenance ...