Electricity is the set of physical phenomena related to the presence and flow of electric charges.
The movement or flow of electrons produces this form of energy. Electrons are tiny particles in atoms. The movement of electrons causes an electrical charge or voltage that releases energy.
Electrons are subatomic particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom. They have a negative charge, and if they experience a force of attraction or repulsion, they can move from one atom to another of a conductive material. Generating electricity means generating this movement of electrons.
There are two types of electrical energy:
Static electricity is a type of electricity that does not move.
Dynamic electricity is a flow of electricity through a conductive material like copper wire.
Power plants are facilities capable of generating electricity. These stations can use either renewable (solar, wind, hydro, etc.) energy or non-renewable energy (fossil or nuclear energy).
Static electricity occurs in non-conductive materials. The induced electric charge remains at rest; it does not move because no current can flow (it is in a non-conductive material).
Due to an unequal relationship between electrons and protons, a static electric voltage can be generated between the parts of this insulating body. It can also occur between the body and another element with another load.
An item charged statically can be positively and negatively charged, but not neutral.
In electrostatics, there is no magnetism because no current flows.
Charged objects can exert charges. Equally charged objects repel each other, unevenly charged objects attract each other. A statically charged object can cause an effect on a conductor.
Balance is restored through a discharge of static electricity. This discharge can happen slowly, and it can also take place quickly.
When we touch a charged object, we may feel a slight electric shock. The crackling we hear is simply the sound of air heating up and expanding after electrical energy has been released through the spark.
How Is Static Electricity Produced?
Static electricity is an event that occurs in insulators. When two insulating materials, such as a rubber balloon and a piece of plastic, rub together, they both become electrically charged. Electrons are transferred from an object to another.
While one loses some electrons, the other gains some electrons. For this reason, the balloon can stick to a wall while the plastic piece acquires the ability to attract small pieces of paper.
The object that loses electrons becomes positively charged, and the item that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. These charges are stationary and remain on the surface of the material.
Since there is no flow of electrons, it is called static electricity.
When electrons are released from a substance and have to flow into a material, it produces dynamic electricity. It is the type of electricity that comes to us through the electric company.
In this type of electricity, electrons travel through an electrical circuit made up of conductive materials.
Electric current is the flow of electrons through a material. Electric current can be of two types:
Direct current (DC), when electrons flow in only one direction. For example, the current produced by a photovoltaic panel.
Alternating current (AC), when electrons change their direction over and over from positive to negative. AC is the type of electricity that we use in our homes.
Its use was an essential milestone in the history of electricity. Electric power was the origin of the second industrial revolution.
The electromagnetic field is the field that describes the electromagnetic interaction. It consists of the combination:
An electric field bred by a static electric charge.
A magnetic field bred by the motion of charges, electric current.
It is generated locally by any distribution of electrical charge and electrical current that varies over time. It propagates in space in the form of waves.
An electric field can create a magnetic field like in an electromagnet. On the contrary, a magnetic field can also cause an electric field, as in a generator.
The electric potential is the work to be done per unit charge to move said charge within an electrostatic field from the reference point to the fact took into account.