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Thermodynamic cycles

Thermodynamic cycles

In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic cycle is a circuit of thermodynamic transformations performed on one or more intended devices. The objective of these transformations is to obtain work from two sources of heat at different temperatures, or conversely, to produce through the contribution of work the passage of heat from the source of lower temperature to higher temperature.

Obtaining work from two thermal sources at different temperatures is used to produce movement, for example, in thermal engines or alternators used in the generation of electrical energy. Performance is the main parameter that characterizes a thermodynamic cycle. The performance is defined as the…

Last review: June 17, 2019

Flat Plate Collector

Flat Plate Collector

The flat plate solar collector is a type of solar thermal panel whose objective is to transform solar radiation into thermal energy. This type of solar collector has a good cost / effectiveness ratio in moderate climates and adapts correctly to a large number of applications of solar thermal energy (heating of sanitary water, heating of swimming pools, support for heating, preheating industrial fluids , etc.).

We can distinguish two basic types of flat plate solar collectors, depending on the configuration of the absorber: the "grid type" parallel, in the vertical and horizontal versions and the "serpentine type" series. Basically, the difference between the two is:

    Last review: June 14, 2019

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is the energy that is obtained from the division (nuclear fission) or from the union (nuclear fusion) of an atom. Despite the existence of a large number of applications related to nuclear energy (medicine, industry, transport, etc.), the main application of this technology is the generation of electrical energy.

Electricity of nuclear origin is generated in nuclear power plants. At present, all nuclear power plants operate through nuclear fission reactions. The nuclear fuel they use is usually uranium or plutonium (by an artificial process). Because uranium resources are not unlimited, nuclear energy is considered a non-renewable energy source.

Last review: June 12, 2019

Silicon

Silicon

What is silicon?

Silicon is a chemical element of atomic number 14 and symbol Si. This chemical element belongs to group IV A of the periodic table. JJ Berzelius 1824 isolated it by reduction with potassium of silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4).

The crystalline elemental silicon is grayish in color with a metallic luster, very hard, with very high melting and boiling points, and is an intrinsic semiconductor. The amorphous form of the element occurs in brown powders, conductive of electricity, which can be easily melted and vaporized.

Silicon is a component widely used in photovoltaic panels due to its semiconductor properties. This…

Last review: June 10, 2019

Geothermal

Geothermal

Geothermal energy is the discipline of Earth Sciences that studies the set of natural phenomena involved in the production and transfer of heat or thermal energy from within the Earth.

In a broad sense, the geothermal concept can also be extended to the study of other planets. Its principles are exploited at a technological level in the production of electricity and cogeneration through geothermal power plants from the associated geothermal energy.

The origin of earth's heat of geothermal

The heat of the Earth's core was originally generated during the accretion of the developed planet thanks to the gravitational pull force. Subsequently, heat continued to be generated…

Last review: May 30, 2019

Coal

Coal

Coal is a fossil fuel that is used to obtain fossil energy through its combustion. The thermodynamic properties of coal allow obtaining a large amount of heat energy during its combustion process.

Coal is a natural resource limited. The generation of coal is a process of several million years, while the consumption of this energy resource is very fast. For this reason, coal is considered a non-renewable source of energy.

Coal is a sedimentary rock of organic origin, black or dark brown. It is used mainly as a fossil fuel because of its high calorific value because it has a majority carbon content. Coals can be classified by the percentage of carbon they…

Last review: May 30, 2019

Other Renewable Energy Technologies

Other Renewable Energy Technologies

In the field of renewable energies, there are other renewable technologies in the development phase. Cellulosic ethanol, geothermal energy from hot and dry rock and marine energy are technologies that can complement traditional photovoltaic solar energy, wind energy or hydropower, for example.

However, these technologies are not yet sufficiently developed or have limited commercialization. Many of these new sources of renewable energy have great potential, but they still have a long way to go in research and development.

There are numerous organizations within the academic and commercial sectors that carry out large-scale advanced research in the field of renewable…

Last review: May 21, 2019

Electricity

Electricity

We have two definitions of electricity depending on whether ns refer to physical phenomena on a macroscopic scale or on a microscopic scale.

With the term electricity we refer generically to all physical phenomena in a macroscopic scale that involves one of the fundamental interactions, the electromagnetic force, with particular reference to electrostatics. At the microscopic level, these phenomena are due to the interaction between charged particles on a molecular scale: the protons in the nucleus of atoms or ionized molecules and the electrons. The typical macroscopic effects of such interactions are electric currents and the attraction or repulsion of electrical bodies or charges.

Last review: May 19, 2019

Alternating Current

Alternating Current

Alternating current (AC) is a type of electrical current that is characterized by changing over time, either in intensity or direction, at regular intervals.

The voltage varies between the maximum and minimum values ​​cyclically, the value of the voltage is positive half the time (positive half cycle or half positive period) and negative the other half. This means that half the time the current flows in one direction, the other half in the other direction. The most common form of undulation follows a sine-type trigonometric function, since it is the most efficient and practical way to produce electrical energy by means of alternators. However, there are certain applications…

Last review: May 17, 2019

Generation Of Solar Fuel

Generation Of Solar Fuel

The generation of fuel through solar energy is a technique based on generating chemical reactions using solar radiation. These chemical processes allow the generation of energy that would otherwise come from a source of fossil fuel or nuclear energy.

A great advantage of the generation of solar fuels is that they can be transported and stored easily. However, adding a step in the generation of electric power (fuel generation) implies a reduction in efficiency: adding an additional step between the storage of energy and the production of electricity drastically decreases the efficiency of the overall process.

Types of solar chemical reactions

The chemical reactions…

Last review: May 15, 2019

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy

The kinetic energy or energy of movement is a form of energy that has a body in motion due to mass inertia. In non-relativistic frames of reference, the kinetic energy is directly proportional to the mass and the square of the velocity. It is the same as the work that needs to be done so that the body goes from the state of rest to the condition in which it is found.

In classical mechanics we make the following considerations:

  • A body with mass m that moves at a velocity v has a kinetic energy Ec = (m · v 2 ) / 2.
  • If the body also undergoes a rotation around the center of mass, it will have a kinetic energy as a result of this…

    Last review: May 8, 2019