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Heat exchanger

Heat exchanger

In engineering a heat exchanger (or simply an exchanger) is an apparatus in which thermal energy is exchanged between two fluids that have different temperatures.

From the thermodynamic point of view, heat exchangers can be assimilated to open systems that work without exchanging work; in other words, they exchange matter and heat with the outside, but they do not exchange jobs.

In the solar thermal industry the heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat captured through the solar radiation that is found from fluid that circulates through the solar collectors to another fluid. This other fluid is the one that will circulate through the heating system or will be stored…

Last review: February 13, 2019

Balance of system (BOS)

Balance of system (BOS)

The balance of system (also known by the acronym BOS) includes all the components of a photovoltaic system with the exception of photovoltaic panels. The balance of system is constituted, typically, by the electrochemical accumulator in the case of some isolated systems of the network, the control unit and the inverter (electronic equipment), the mechanical support structure, the electrical wiring and the protection devices (fuses, ground connections and switches).

Other optional components in a solar BOS include, maximum power point monitoring (MPPT), GPS solar tracker, energy management software, solar concentrators, solar radiation sensors, wind equipment, or specific task…

Last review: February 13, 2019

Solar efficiency

Solar efficiency

The efficiency of photovoltaic cells is one of the elements that determine the production of a photovoltaic solar energy installation. The other factors that determine the performance of a solar plant are latitude and climate.

The conversion efficiency value of a photovoltaic cell depends on several factors. When we refer to conversion efficiency, we refer implicitly to the thermodynamic efficiency, to the separation efficiency of the load carrier, to the reflectance efficiency and to the values ​​of conduction efficiency. These parameters are difficult to measure directly, so other parameters are measured instead, including quantum efficiency, the open circuit voltage…

Last review: February 8, 2019

Principles of passive solar energy transfer

Principles of passive solar energy transfer

Passive solar energy is based on the use of solar energy without the need to use external support mechanisms. By these mechanisms we refer to the use of electric motors to orient solar panels or similar systems.

The objective is to obtain personal thermal comfort. Personal thermal comfort is a function of personal health factors (medical, psychological, sociological and situational), ambient air temperature, average radiant temperature, air movement (thermal sensation, turbulence) and relative humidity (which affects human evaporative cooling).

To use passive solar energy it is necessary to carry out a series of energy exchanges, to transfer energy from one system…

Last review: February 6, 2019

Bioclimatic architecture

Bioclimatic architecture

The bioclimatic architecture enters what is called passive solar energy. This type of architecture uses natural elements of the place (sun, wind, water, soil and vegetation) to achieve thermally efficient buildings capable of satisfying thermal comfort requirements, regardless of the use of air conditioning systems.

The bioclimatic approach is related to the principle of self-sufficiency and the realization that the main phenomena that negatively affect the environment are caused by the consumption of large amounts of non-renewable energy, fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Construction is a highly polluting sector because most of the gas and CO 2 emissions come…

Last review: February 5, 2019

Solar irradiation

Solar irradiation

Solar irradiation is the magnitude that measures the energy per unit area of ​​incident solar radiation on a surface placed in a well-specified place and time range.

The solar irradiation in the terrestrial surface is, from the technical point of view, the addition in a determined interval of the solar radiance filtered by the interposition of the atmosphere.

The value of solar irradiation on the surface depends on the time of year, latitude, local climatology and times of day.

Origin of solar irradiation

The origin of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. Solar radiation is the reaction of nuclear fusion that occurs constantly inside the Sun. In the nuclear…

Last review: February 4, 2019

Disadvantages of geothermal energy

Disadvantages of geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a type of renewable energy. It is considered renewable energy because it does not consume resources and is practically inexhaustible.

Its principle of operation is based on the use of heat inside the Earth. One of the most used techniques to take advantage of the internal energy of the rocks is to build wells of about 150 meters through which a fluid circulates. The fluid falls with a low temperature, at the bottom through a thermodynamic process it is heated and goes up with the thermal energy acquired to the surface.

It is a new technology and less known than the other sources of renewable energy (solar energy, hydropower or wind energy)…

Last review: January 21, 2019

Pelton Turbine

Pelton Turbine

The Pelton turbine is a type of turbine used in the hydraulic energy industry within the field of renewable energy.

A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine of the impulse type used in hydroelectric power plants with high vertical height. It was Invent to by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s and Amend significantly by other inventors beyond late 1800. The Pelton turbine is a further development of traditional water wheel. The Pelton turbine transforms the hydraulic energy into the impulse of one or more jets of water at a very high velocity to kinetic energy (rotation). There were many variants…

Last review: December 5, 2018

Francis Turbine

Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine used in hydraulic power installations with a considerable height of fall.

The Francis turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine built by British-American engineer James Bicheno Francis. The function of the Francis turbine is mainly to generate electricity with the help of a generator. Francis turbines have a high utilization capacity of more than 90% and a wide range of activities compared to the height (building drop) of the fluid flowing through the turbine. This is particularly emphasized in water where it achieves optimum performance in a building drop of 20 meters to 700 meters and the output power varies from a couple of kilowatts to 750…

Last review: November 26, 2018

Kaplan Turbine

Kaplan Turbine

The Kaplan turbine is a hydraulic jet turbine that uses small gradients, up to a few tens of meters, but with large flows, from 200/300 m³ / s. It is therefore a type of turbine used in hydraulic energy, a type of renewable energy.

The Kaplan turbine was invented in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan.

Constructively, this type of hydraulic turbine is a propeller, where the blades can be oriented, since the water flow varies, which allows the performance to remain high up to flows of 20-30% of the nominal flow. In general, the turbine is equipped with fixed stator deflectors that orient the flow. The efficiency of the turbine can be optimized for a wider range…

Last review: November 24, 2018