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Pelton Turbine

Pelton Turbine

The Pelton turbine is a type of turbine used in the hydraulic energy industry within the field of renewable energy.

A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine of the impulse type used in hydroelectric power plants with high vertical height. It was Invent to by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s and Amend significantly by other inventors beyond late 1800. The Pelton turbine is a further development of traditional water wheel. The Pelton turbine transforms the hydraulic energy into the impulse of one or more jets of water at a very high velocity to kinetic energy (rotation). There were many variants…

Last review: December 5, 2018

Francis Turbine

Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine used in hydraulic power installations with a considerable height of fall.

The Francis turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine built by British-American engineer James Bicheno Francis. The function of the Francis turbine is mainly to generate electricity with the help of a generator. Francis turbines have a high utilization capacity of more than 90% and a wide range of activities compared to the height (building drop) of the fluid flowing through the turbine. This is particularly emphasized in water where it achieves optimum performance in a building drop of 20 meters to 700 meters and the output power varies from a couple of kilowatts to 750…

Last review: November 26, 2018

Kaplan Turbine

Kaplan Turbine

The Kaplan turbine is a hydraulic jet turbine that uses small gradients, up to a few tens of meters, but with large flows, from 200/300 m³ / s. It is therefore a type of turbine used in hydraulic energy, a type of renewable energy.

The Kaplan turbine was invented in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan.

Constructively, this type of hydraulic turbine is a propeller, where the blades can be oriented, since the water flow varies, which allows the performance to remain high up to flows of 20-30% of the nominal flow. In general, the turbine is equipped with fixed stator deflectors that orient the flow. The efficiency of the turbine can be optimized for a wider range…

Last review: November 24, 2018

Watt-Peak

Watt-Peak

The notion of watt-peak is used to compare the performance of photovoltaic solar installations and to predict the amount of electricity they can produce under optimal conditions.

To compare the capacity of solar panels, there are established standard conditions: at an irradiance of 1 kW / m², whose spectrum corresponds to the spectrum of sunlight in an air mass of 1.5 (this means that sunlight passing through the atmosphere is equal one and a half times the average thickness of the atmosphere), and a cell temperature of 25 ° C.

The objective of having the maximum power is to guarantee that the power supply can handle the load peaks and protect the power supply, thus…

Last review: November 14, 2018

Biomass Energy

Biomass Energy

Bioenergy is biological energy, and it allows biological entities (living beings) to move, to have brain activity and food production and synthesis of biological tissues.

Bioenergy is continuously retransformed cyclically. The typical bioenergetic cycle of plants is called the "Calvin cycle". The bioenergetic cycle of living beings is called the "Krebs cycle". In these cycles the transformation of sugars occurs in other carbohydrates, the purpose of this transformation is the synthesis of very high energy concentration molecules, such as ATP and ADP.

Technological uses of bioenergy

Man discovered that biological entities can burn, and thought that this was the "spirit"…

Last review: October 31, 2018

Photovoltaic Module

Photovoltaic Module

Photovoltaic modules or solar panels are devices that are used to capture the energy of the sun's light. Photovoltaic solar panels contain a set of solar cells that convert light into electricity. It is called solar because the sun is one of the strongest energy sources for this type of use. Solar cells are sometimes called photovoltaic cells, and photovoltaics literally means "light-electricity". Solar cells have the photovoltaic effect to absorb the sun's energy and cause electrical current to flow between two charged layers in the opposite direction.

Currently, the costs associated with solar modules become cheap in applications where the power of the electric stations is available.…

Last review: October 30, 2018

Polycrystalline Silicon

Polycrystalline Silicon

Polycrystalline or polysilicon silicon is a material made of misaligned (polycrystalline) silicon glass. It occupies an intermediate position between amorphous silicon, in which there is no long-range order, and monocrystalline silicon.

This type of material is very important for the construction of photovoltaic panels and solar energy in general. The combination of silicon, together with solar radiation, makes it possible to take advantage of the photovoltaic effect and generate electricity.

This material has discrete metallic characteristics if strongly n-type doped. It often replaces aluminum for the production of metal parts within semiconductor electronic devices due to…

Last review: October 26, 2018

Degree Celsius

Degree Celsius

The degree Celsius or degree Celsius (in symbol in ° C), is the unit of a temperature measurement scale, named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701 - 1744), who proposed it for the first time in 1742.

The Celsius scale fixes the melting point of ice in a mixture of water saturated with air at 0 ° C and the boiling point at 99.974 ° C under standard pressure conditions (1 bar, a little less than one atmosphere, pressure in the one that the water boils at 100 degrees centigrade).

Originally conceived by the Celsius scale had the boiling point of water at 0 ° C, and the freezing point of 100 ° C. After his death, however, the scale was reversed…

Last review: October 25, 2018

Hydraulic Turbines

Hydraulic Turbines

A turbine is a turbomachine that converts the energy of flow of a fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy by means of a system of rotating blades. This mechanical energy can be used to power another machine or an electric generator.

The turbine name was proposed by Claude Burdin during an engineering contest in 1828. This name comes from the Latin turbine, which means Foucault current.

A simple turbine consists of a single rotor with vanes, which provide exchange of energy with the flow. The first examples of turbines are wind turbines and water mills (wind power and hydropower).

Gas, steam and water turbines generally have a housing around the rotor. This casing…

Last review: October 25, 2018

Domestic Hot Water (Dhw)

Domestic Hot Water (Dhw)

One of the applications of solar thermal energy is the obtaining of sanitary hot water (ACS). Solar collectors capture the energy of solar radiation to increase the temperature of a fluid.

Domestic hot water (DHW) is water intended for human consumption (potable) that has been heated. It is used for sanitary uses (bathrooms, showers, etc.) and for other cleaning uses (washing dishes, washing machine, dishwasher, floor scrubbing). In terms of energy, the ACS is an important component to take into account, since it represents between 25 and 40% of the energy consumption of homes.

As a general rule, it consists of: the water heater, circulation pump, pipes, flow meters, valves for…

Last review: October 15, 2018

Frequently Asked Questions About Solar Energy

Frequently Asked Questions About Solar Energy

In this section we intend to answer the main questions related to solar energy.

Generally, these are general topics that could be located in several sections of the web. Our intention is to expand this section in the future to publish generalist articles and curiosities of nuclear energy.

Most of the questions are focused on small solar installations, comparative with solar thermal energy and photovoltaic solar energy.

In the future we will also answer on more oriented questions in the field of physics: thermodynamics, forms of energy, mechanical energy, potential energy, etc. Likewise, we will also make comparisons with a certain renewable energy or with the energies that…

Last review: October 5, 2018