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Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic Properties

A thermodynamic property is a characteristic or a particularity that allows the changes of the work substance, that is to say, changes of energy.

The thermodynamic properties can be classified as intensive and extensive. They are intensive those that do not depend on the amount of matter of the system (pressure, temperature, composition). Extensive ones depend on the size of the system (mass, volume).

The thermodynamic variables are the magnitudes that we consider necessary or convenient to specify to give a macroscopic description of the system. Most of these magnitudes come from other branches of physics.

Intensive thermodynamic properties


Last review: April 17, 2019

Low-Temperature Solar Thermal Energy

Low-Temperature Solar Thermal Energy

Low-temperature solar thermal installations are considered those installations of solar thermal energy that provide useful heat at temperatures below 65 ° C through solar energy.

A low-temperature solar thermal installation consists of solar collectors, two water circuits (primary and secondary), heat exchanger, accumulator, expansion vessel and pipes.

The circulation of water inside the circuits can be obtained by thermosiphon, taking advantage of the density difference of the water at different temperatures or by means of a circulation pump. Although with a circulation pump an external contribution of electrical energy is needed.

Applications of solar thermal…

Last review: April 12, 2019

Wind Power

Wind Power

What is wind power?

Wind energy is a renewable energy whose origin is wind. This energy source takes advantage of the kinetic energy generated by the effect of air currents to transform it into other useful forms for human activities. Historically, wind energy has been used since ancient times to move sail-driven boats or operate mill machinery when moving its blades.

The most common use of wind energy is the generation of electricity. Wind turbines are machines that convert the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy.

Wind energy is an abundant, renewable, clean resource that helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of wind turbines…

Last review: April 10, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Power

Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Power

Wind energy is a source of energy that is becoming very popular in many countries of the world. The advantages associated with the use of wind energy (renewable energy, clean, respectful with the environment, etc.) are helping a lot to its growth and implementation in many countries.

However, the disadvantages of wind power are also notable and must be considered before investing in a wind power plant. Sometimes the contrast between advantages and disadvantages of solar energy or other sources of energy can vary from one place to another.

In this article we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of wind energy.

Advantages of wind power

Renewable energy. Wind…

Last review: April 9, 2019

What is the impact of solar energy on the electricity bill?

What is the impact of solar energy on the electricity bill?

The constant price increases in electricity rates are reflected in the monthly bills of our home and therefore, more and more people are looking for alternatives to electricity and natural gas in order to save a few euros at the end of the month . One of these alternatives that has been implemented for a few years in Spain is self-consumption from solar panels .

With the installation of solar panels and the use of solar radiation, it is possible to generate electricity and / or heat in the home in a clean and renewable way while saving electricity and natural gas bills. But how does solar energy work? In…

Last review: March 29, 2019

Evacuated Tube Solar Collector

Evacuated Tube Solar Collector

A solar collector of evacuated tubes is a type of solar panel that uses solar thermal energy. The finality of solar collectors is converting solar radioation into thermal energy.

This renewable solar energy system uses a type of solar panel consisting of linear collectors housed in evacuated glass tubes.

The evacuated tube solar collector consists of a set of cylindrical tubes. The tubes are formed by a selective absorber, located on a reflector settlement and surrounded by a transparent glass cylinder.

The vacuum has been made between the transparent outer tube and the inner absorber. With this, the thermodynamic losses by conduction and by convection from…

Last review: March 27, 2019

Thermodynamic Processes

Thermodynamic Processes

A thermodynamic process is the evolution of certain properties, which are called thermodynamic properties, in relation to a particular thermodynamic system. In order to study a thermodynamic process, it is required that the system be in thermodynamic equilibrium at the initial and final point of the process; that is, that the magnitudes that undergo a variation when passing from one state to another must be completely defined in their initial and final states.

In this way thermodynamic processes can be interpreted as the result of the interaction of one system with another after being eliminated some ligature between them, so that finally the systems are in balance (mechanical,…

Last review: March 13, 2019

Watt Unit

Watt Unit

The watt (symbol: W) is the power unit of the International System, it is the amount of energy in joules that is converted, used or dissipated in one second. It is a derived unit that takes its name from the engineer, inventor and constructor of Scottish instruments James Watt, for his contribution to the development of the steam engine, which was one of the triggers of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

The watt unit was adopted by the Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1889, which meant its international recognition as a power unit, incorporating it as an additional unit to the practical units defined in the CGS system. It was defined…

Last review: March 7, 2019



Hydropower is a source of renewable energy or alternative energy. This renewable energy exploits the transformation of gravitational potential energy, possessed by a certain mass of water at a certain elevation, in kinetic energy to overcome a certain difference in height. The mechanical energy obtained can be used directly to rotate the shaft of a turbine or in some application or machine that works using hydropower. The most common is to use this kinetic energy to generate electrical energy. In this case, we talk about hydroelectric power.

In hydroelectric power, the kinetic energy is finally transformed into electricity thanks to an alternator coupled to a turbine. This process…

Last review: March 4, 2019

Forced Circulation For Solar Water Heater

Forced Circulation For Solar Water Heater

A forced circulation for solar water heater is an installation in which the water circulates inside the circuit driven by a pump. With forced circulation system, the movement of water in the closed circuit is forced by a pump. This feature makes a big difference with respect to sanitary hot water installations with thermosyphon. In this way, it artificially moves the hot water not to the highest point of the closed circuit, but it does so from the solar collectors down to where the accumulator is located.

In many occasions it is not viable to install solar thermal equipment to obtain domestic hot water by thermosyphon, since often the location of the solar collectors…

Last review: February 26, 2019

Photovoltaic solar energy

Photovoltaic solar energy

Photovoltaic solar energy consists of the direct transformation of solar radiation into electrical energy. This type of energy is often referred to directly as photovoltaics.

This transformation in electrical energy is achieved by taking advantage of the properties of semiconductor materials through photovoltaic cells. The base material for the manufacture of photovoltaic panels is usually silicon. When sunlight (photons) hits one of the faces of the solar cell, it generates an electric current. This generated electricity can be used as an energy source.

The manufacture of photovoltaic cells is a costly process, both economically and in time. The silica…

Last review: February 25, 2019