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Hydraulic fracturing or geotechnical fracking is the exploitation of the pressure of a fluid, typically water, to create and then propagate a fracture in a layer of rock in the subsoil. Fracking is carried out after a drilling in a rock formation containing hydrocarbons (oil or natural gas). The objective is to increase the permeability. Improving permeability improves the production of oil or gas contained in the subsoil and increases its recovery rate.
Hydraulic fractures in rocks can be both natural and created by humans; they are created and enlarged by the pressure of the fluid contained in the fracture. The most common natural hydraulic fractures are dykes and strand layers,…
Last review: October 15, 2019
Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies and describes the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a thermodynamic system, as a result of processes that involve changes in temperature and energy state variables.
The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental stage in the history of physics, chemistry and the history of science in general. Due to the relevance of thermodynamics in many parts of science and technology, the history of thermodynamics has been subtle in nature with the development of classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, magnetism and the science of chemical velocity, and in more remote practical fields such as meteorology,…
Last review: October 10, 2019
A solar tracker is a mechanical device - automatic act to guide favorably with respect to the sun's rays from a photovoltaic panel, a solar thermal panel or a solar concentrator. The solar tracker causes an increase in the power of the captured solar energy and, therefore, the actual performance of the renewable energy device. One type of solar tracker is the heliostat. Historically, the first solar tracking systems were those in orbit on artificial satellites in the respective solar panels.
The main objective of a tracker is to maximize the efficiency of the device housed on board. In the photovoltaic field, modules mounted on a tracker are generally arranged geometrically…
Last review: October 8, 2019
Electric current is the transport of electric charge. In an electrical network, this transport is mainly carried out through the movement of electrons through conductors and semiconductors under the influence of a potential difference. In the field of electricity, the movement of ions in an electrolyte or plasma also causes an electric current. In all these cases, cargo transportation is done by moving the cargo carriers. In addition, an electric current is also created as a change in the electrical flow, such as between the plates of a capacitor during charging and discharging, without moving the charge carriers.
The intensity of the electric current is measured…
Last review: October 7, 2019
Solar energy is the energy associated with solar radiation and represents the main source of energy on land.
From this energy, it is derived more or less directly from almost all other sources of energy available to man, such as fossil fuels, wind energy, tidal or wave energy, hydroelectric energy, energy from the biomass The only exceptions are nuclear energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy. It can be used directly for energy purposes to produce heat or electricity with various types of systems.
From the energy point of view, it is an alternative energy to classic fossil fuels, it is considered a renewable energy. Solar energy can be properly exploited through…
Last review: October 3, 2019
A thin film solar cell is a second generation of solar cells that is made by depositing one or more thin layers, or thin film (TF) of photovoltaic material on a substrate, such as glass, plastic or metal.
The thickness of the film varies from a few nanometers (nm) to tens of micrometers (µm). The film is much thinner than the rival technology of the thin film, the first generation conventional crystalline silicon solar cell (c-Si), which uses wafers up to 200 µm thick. This allows thin film cells to be flexible and of less weight. It is used in the construction of integrated photovoltaic systems and as a semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing material that…
Last review: September 26, 2019
Enthalpy is a state function of thermodynamics that is symbolized by the letter H. Enthalpy is also known as absolute enthalpy or amount of heat. The variation of the enthalpy of a thermodynamic system allows to express the amount of heat exchanged during an isobaric transformation, that is, at constant pressure.
We define enthalpy as a defined physical quantity in the field of classical thermodynamics so that it measures the maximum energy of a thermodynamic system theoretically capable of being removed from it in the form of heat or thermal energy.
Enthalpy is particularly useful in understanding and describing isobaric processes: constant pressure, enthalpy change is…
Last review: September 25, 2019
Chemical thermodynamics (or thermochemistry) is the branch of thermodynamics that studies the thermal effects caused by chemical reactions, called the heat of reaction. Therefore, chemical thermodynamics refers to the conversions of chemical energy into thermal energy and vice versa, which occur during a reaction and studies the variables connected to them, such as bond enthalpy, entropy of standard formation, etc. All these conversions are made within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics.
Charge controllers or regulators are equipment that controls the voltage and current of a solar panel or wind generator, delivered to the battery park. A charge regulator limits the speed at which electrical current is added or extracted from electric batteries. Avoid overload and can protect against overvoltage. Battery overload may reduce battery performance or life, and may pose a safety risk.
The charge controller can be supplied in the form of a separate device (for example, an electronic unit in a wind turbine or in a photovoltaic solar energy system) or in the form of a microcircuit for integration into a battery or charger. Independent charge regulators…
Last review: August 27, 2019
In climatology the term global warming indicates the change in the climate of the Earth developed in the twentieth century and still ongoing. This change is largely attributed to emissions into the Earth's atmosphere of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases, and other factors that the scientific community has been identified as attributable to human activity.
In the course of Earth's history, there have been several variations of climate that have led the planet to cross different eras of ice alternated with warmer periods called interglacial eras. These variations are mainly due to periodic changes in the orbital design of our planet, with disturbances due to the periodic…
Last review: July 5, 2019
Geothermal energy is the discipline of Earth Sciences that studies the set of natural phenomena involved in the production and transfer of heat or thermal energy from within the Earth.
In a broad sense, the geothermal concept can also be extended to the study of other planets. Its principles are exploited at a technological level in the production of electricity and cogeneration through geothermal power plants from the associated geothermal energy. The origin of earth's heat of geothermal
The heat of the Earth's core was originally generated during the accretion of the developed planet thanks to the gravitational pull force. Subsequently, heat continued to be generated…
Last review: May 30, 2019