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Photollectric cell

Photollectric cell

In electronics, a photoelectric cell or a photovoltaic cell is an electrical / electronic device that converts the incident energy of solar radiation into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic cells are the basic components of photovoltaic modules, which are solar panels capable of generating electrical energy from solar radiation. It is therefore the essential basic element for this type of renewable energy.

Compounds of a material that has a photoelectric effect absorb photons of light and emit electrons. When these free electrons are captured, the result is an electric current that can be used as electricity. A photovoltaic panel is composed of a group of photoelectric…

Last review: May 25, 2018

Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Solar photovoltaic energy consists in the direct transformation of solar radiation into electrical energy. This type of energy is often referred to directly as photovoltaic energy.

This transformation into electrical energy is achieved by taking advantage of the properties of semiconductor materials through photovoltaic cells. The base material for the manufacture of photovoltaic panels is usually silicon. When sunlight (photons) hits one of the faces of the solar cell, it generates an electric current. This generated electricity can be used as an energy source.

Manufacturing photovoltaic cells is a costly process, both economically and in time. The silica with which the photovoltaic…

Last review: May 24, 2018

Power inverter

Power inverter

An inverter is an electronic device. The function of the inverter is to change a DC input voltage to a symmetrical AC output voltage, with the magnitude and frequency desired by the user. The inverters use in a great variety of applications, from small power supplies for computers, to industrial applications to control high power. The inverters are also used to convert the direct current generated by photovoltaic solar panels, accumulators or batteries, etc., into alternating current and thus be able to be injected into the electrical network or used in isolated electrical installations.

A simple inverter consists of an oscillator that controls a transistor, which is used to interrupt…

Last review: May 22, 2018

Power inverter

Power inverter

An inverter is an electronic device. The function of the inverter is to change a DC input voltage to a symmetrical AC output voltage, with the magnitude and frequency desired by the user. The inverters use in a great variety of applications, from small power supplies for computers, to industrial applications to control high power. The inverters are also used to convert the direct current generated by photovoltaic solar panels, accumulators or batteries, etc., into alternating current and thus be able to be injected into the electrical network or used in isolated electrical installations.

A simple inverter consists of an oscillator that controls a transistor, which is used to interrupt…

Last review: May 22, 2018

Components of photovoltaic installations connected to the network

Components of photovoltaic installations connected to the network

A photovoltaic solar installation connected to the network has only three basic elements:

  • A group of photovoltaic solar panels. These solar panels are usually located on the roof of a building or integrated into any structural element of the same building. The photovoltaic panels can also be arranged directly on any land near the electricity grid.
  • Ondulator or electronic inverter-converter. This device transforms the energy in the form of direct current provided by the solar panels, in alternating current of the same type and value as the one transported by the electric network
  • Table of interconnection with the commercial electric network.

These…

Last review: May 22, 2018

Components of autonomous photovoltaic installations

Components of autonomous photovoltaic installations

Autonomous photovoltaic installations are those installations that are isolated from the electricity grid. All electrical energy generated by solar panels is consumed directly.

This type of photovoltaic installation is designed for the cases in which the cost of maintenance and installation of the power lines is not profitable. For example, this would be the case of mountain refuge.

The main element of autonomous photovoltaic installations is the photovoltaic panel. The photovoltaic panel is responsible for transforming solar radiation into electrical energy in the form of direct current.

Advantages and disadvantages of autonomous solar installations

The isolated…

Last review: May 18, 2018

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power

Hydropower is the electric power produced in a hydroelectric power station from a current, vertical or horizontal, of a river. In other words, it is electricity (electrical energy) obtained from hydraulic energy (mechanical energy of water in movement of rivers, lakes and marshes).

The difference between hydroelectric and hydraulic energy is that hydraulic energy can be used to generate electrical energy but also to obtain energy of another type, for example, mechanical energy. While hydropower refers only to the use of hydropower to obtain electric power or electricity.

The technical potential for hydropower growth worldwide is 71% Europe, 75% North America, 79% South America,…

Last review: May 17, 2018

Solar Furnace

Solar Furnace

A solar oven or solar oven is an optical system to provide concentrated solar radiation. The concentrated energy of sunlight can be used for simple heating of a material, aging experiments of plastics or paints, endothermic chemical reactions or for charging experiments with mechanical or electrical components.

The solar oven system is widely used in solar thermal power plants.

The principle of the solar oven is also used to build cheap solar solar cookers, and for solar water pasteurisation.â €

The difference between the solar oven system and a solar panel is that the solar panel captures and converts solar energy directly, whereas the solar furnace only reflects…

Last review: May 17, 2018

Alternating current

Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is a type of electric current that is characterized by changing over time, either in intensity or direction, at regular intervals.

The voltage varies between the maximum and minimum values cyclically, the value of the voltage is positive half the time (half positive cycle or half positive period) and negative the other half. This means that half the time the current flows in one direction, the other half in the other direction. The most common form of undulation follows a sine-type trigonometric function, since it is the most efficient and practical way to produce electrical energy by means of alternators. However, there are certain applications in which other…

Last review: May 9, 2018

Advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic power

Advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic power

Hydropower is a source of renewable energy that uses water to generate energy. Normally, it uses the potential energy of water at a certain height to generate turbines and with them, electricity.

However, the characteristics of this type of energy have certain advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of hydraulic power

Due to the water cycle, the availability of water to generate electric power is almost inexhaustible. For this reason, hydraulic energy is a renewable energy source with high energy efficiency.

It is a clean energy; it does not produce toxic emissions, unlike fossil energy during its operation, which does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Last review: May 9, 2018

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies and describes the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a thermodynamic system, as a result of processes that involve changes in the temperature and energy state variables.

Classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of macroscopic system, that is, a portion of physical mass or conceptually separated from the external environment, which is often assumed for convenience that is not disturbed by the exchange of energy with the system. The state of a macroscopic system that is in equilibrium conditions is specified by quantities called thermodynamic variables or state functions such as temperature,…

Last review: April 26, 2018