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Kaplan turbine

Kaplan turbine

The Kaplan turbine is a hydraulic turbine that uses small gradients, up to a few tens of meters, but with a massive flow of water rates, from 200/300 m³ / s. Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world in hydropower plants for electrical power production.

Constructively, this hydraulic turbine is a propeller, where the blades can be oriented since the water flow varies. This regulation allows the performance to remain high up to 20-30% of the nominal flow rates.

The turbine is usually equipped with fixed stator deflectors that guide the flow. Turbine efficiency can be optimized for a range more expansive than the ideal flow rate. This regulation is carried out…

Last review: November 19, 2020

What is biomass energy?

What is biomass energy?

Bioenergy is biological energy. Bioenergy allows living beings to move, have brain activity, food production, and biological tissue synthesis.

The concept of "bioenergy" is used both in:

  • The electric power industry

  • The heat power engineering 

  • The co-production of heat and electricity.

Biomass is a substance of organic material produced by organisms, including plants and animals. We do not consider fossil fuels as biomass. The substances of organic matter transformed by geological processes are not part of them.

Biomass is the biological material that is obtained from biological processes such as photosynthesis…

Last review: November 17, 2020

What is a hydraulic turbine? Types of water turbines

What is a hydraulic turbine? Types of water turbines

A water turbine is a machine that transforms the energy of a stream of water into mechanical energy using a system of rotating blades. This mechanical energy can be used to power another engine or an electrical generator.

Turbines are generally made up of a single rotor with blades, which provide energy exchange with the flow. The impeller blades deflect moving water to transform kinetic energy and pressure energy or exchange fluid momentum with a moment of force on the shaft.

The moment of forces in the shaft causes the rotation of the turbine generating rotational kinetic energy. Often, the turbine goes connected to an electric generator to get power generation. In other cases,…

Last review: November 16, 2020

Domestic hot water (DHW)

Domestic hot water (DHW)

One of the uses of solar thermal energy is obtaining sanitary hot water (DHW). Solar collectors capture energy from solar radiation to increase the temperature of a fluid.

Domestic hot water (DHW) is water intended for human consumption that has been heated. The primary uses are:

  • Sanitary uses such as bathrooms, showers, etc.

  • Cleaning uses such as dishwashing, washing machine, etc.

  • Heating systems.

In energy terms, a domestic hot water system implies significant energy savings as it represents between 25 and 40% of the energy consumption of homes.

Domestically, water is traditionally heated in electric water…

Last review: November 13, 2020

What is a hydropower plant?

What is a hydropower plant?

A hydroelectric power station is a set of water power engineering works with a series of suitable machines. The objective of a hydroelectric power station is to obtain electricity from the potential energy of moving water.

These types of power plants take advantage of the potential energy of water to generate electrical energy.

The energy produced by hydroelectric plants is renewable. Thanks to the water cycle, this resource can be endlessly reused for the same purpose without undergoing a purification process. however, it depends on the annual volume of total entries.


Last review: November 10, 2020

What Is a Concentrated Solar Power?

What Is a Concentrated Solar Power?

Concentrated solar power could save nearly 20 billion tons of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere over the next 30 years.

Solar power concentration typically directs light into a collection of some heat transfer fluid, usually water. When the water heats up, it expands and eventually starts to boil. This steam turns a steam turbine to generate electricity.

Concentrated solar power plants are thermal power plants that their energy source is the sun instead of coal or natural gas. Crescent Dunes was the first concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with a power tower and advanced molten salt…

Last review: November 7, 2020

What is hydropower?

What is hydropower?

Hydropower is the energy obtained from the potential energy of the water or moving water. This energy can be directly harnessed to rotate the shaft of a hydraulic turbine for mechanical work.

It is a renewable energy source that depends on the water cycle. It is clean energy presented as an alternative to fossil fuels since it does not generate waste or greenhouse gases. However, it has some environmental impacts.

Hydroelectric power is the conversion of this mechanical work into electricity.

An advantage of hydroelectric power is that dams make it possible to regulate the river flow downstream past the barrier. On the other hand, among the many cons of hydraulic energy,…

Last review: November 5, 2020

What are renewable energies?

What are renewable energies?

Renewable energy is a type of energy that its source comes from virtually endless natural sources. Renewable resources can regenerate faster than the rate at which they are consumed.

This type of energy is related to clean energy that does not generate greenhouse gases like fossil fuels. Therefore, on climate change, they do not contribute to global warming.

Energy efficiency varies depending on the type of energy. However, compared to non-renewable sources, efficiency is higher.

The main advantages of this type of energy are:

  • They are clean, respectful of the environment, and does not emit carbon dioxide.

  • They are safer and pose fewer…

    Last review: November 3, 2020

Solar thermal energy, uses and types of facilities

Solar thermal energy, uses and types of facilities

Solar thermal energy consists of the transformation of solar energy into thermal energy. It is a form of renewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly energy.

This way of generating energy can be applied in homes and small installations, and large power plants.

There are three main uses of solar thermal systems:

  • Electricity generation

  • Thermal energy by heating fluid

  • Mechanical energy using a Stirling engine.

There are three types of solar thermal technologies:

  • High-temperature plants are used to produce electricity working with temperatures above 500 ºC (773 kelvin).

  • Last review: October 30, 2020

What is the temperature definition? Scales and units

What is the temperature definition? Scales and units

Temperature is the thermodynamic magnitude that shows the thermal energy of one body to that of another. This thermodynamic property only describes a macroscopic state.

The definition of temperature in terms of molecular kinetic energy is the measure of the average of the molecules’ kinetic energy that makes it up. That is the movement of the particles inside it.

On the other hand, according to statistical mechanics, we can define it as the derivative of energy concerning entropy at constant volume.


Being a macroscopic magnitude, it has an exclusively statistical character. It means that it does not make sense to speak of an isolated…

Last review: October 29, 2020

What is the electric current intensity? Amperage definition and formula

What is the electric current intensity? Amperage definition and formula

The current intensity is the electrical charge that passes through a section of the conductor per second.

An electric current in a wire, where the charge carriers are electrons negatively charged, is a measure of the quantity of charge passing any point of the wire per unit of time.

A flow of positive charges (such as protons or positive ions) has the same effect in a circuit, as an equal flow of electrons in the opposite direction.

The following formula gives the amperage:

I = Q / t


  • “I” represents the electric current intensity expressed in Amps (A).

  • “Q” represents the electric charge expressed…

    Last review: October 25, 2020