Photovoltaic Installations Connected To Network
The electric current generated by a photovoltaic solar energy installation can be poured into the electricity grid as if it were a power plant. The consumption of electricity is independent of the energy generated by the photovoltaic panels. In these cases, the user continues to buy the electric energy consumed by the distribution company at the established price and also owns an electric power generation facility.
The most usual powers measured in vations are 2.5 and 5 kilowatts (kw) or multiples of 5 to 100 kilowatts (kw). There are larger solar installations, but they are only carried out by companies or research centers, since they are amortized over longer periods.
Some of the applications of these photoelectric solar energy systems are the following:
- Facilities on rooftops, terraces, etc. of houses that have connection to the electrical distribution network: The surface of the roof is used to place modular systems of easy installation.
- Production plants: These are industrial photovoltaic solar energy applications that can be installed in rural areas not used for other uses ("solar farms", "energy cooperatives") or superimposed on large urban areas (car parks, commercial areas, etc.) .)
- Integration in buildings: Consists in the replacement of conventional architectural elements by new architectural elements that include photovoltaic elements (usually foovoltaic solar panels), and that are therefore generators of energy (façade coatings, curtain walls, parasols, pergolas, etc.)
Elements of a photovoltaic solar installation connected to the network
The photovoltaic cells, usually black or dark blue, associate in groups and are protected from the weather, forming photovoltaic modules. Several photovoltaic modules together with the electrical cables that connect them and with the support and fixing elements, constitute what is known as a photovoltaic generator.
The photovoltaic generator is the element responsible for transforming solar radiation into electrical energy. This electricity is produced in direct current, and its characteristics depend on the energy intensity of the solar radiation and the ambient temperature.
The power inverter is the element that transforms the electrical energy (direct current) produced by the panels into alternating current of the same characteristics as that of the electrical network. There are different types of investors, but it is advisable to choose it based on the size of the installation to be made.
The photovoltaic generator needs two meters located between the inverter and the network, one to quantify the energy that is generated and injected to the network for billing, and another to quantify the small consumption (<2 kWh / year) of the photovoltaic inverter in absence of solar radiation, as well as guarantee for the electric company of possible consumptions that the owner of the installation could do.
The electricity consumption of the building will be made from the network, with its own meter, this being an installation independent of the photovoltaic system.
Last review: March 21, 2017