Electric current

Low, medium and high electrical voltage

Low, medium and high electrical voltage

To ensure an efficient and safe supply of electricity, different levels of electrical voltage are used, each designed to meet specific needs. The three main levels are low, medium and high electrical voltage.

The differences between low, medium and high voltage focus on the voltage range of the electric current and its applications. Low voltage electricity, with voltages less than 1,000 V, is common in homes and small businesses. On the other hand, medium voltage is between 1,000 and 33,000 V and facilitates efficient distribution in urban and industrial areas. Finally, high voltage, greater than 33,000 V, is used to transmit large amounts of energy over long distances and connect regional electrical networks, minimizing losses.

Low electrical voltage

Low electrical voltage refers to a relatively low voltage level used for the transmission of electricity in domestic and commercial applications.

In most cases, low voltage is defined as any voltage below 1,000 volts, although regulations may vary by location and country. In most homes, low voltage is the way electricity is delivered from the distribution network to outlets and appliances.

Basic characteristics

  • Domestic and commercial use: Low voltage is the most common form of power supply in homes and small businesses. Appliances, lights and electronic devices in the home operate at this voltage level to ensure the safety of users.

  • Safety: One of the key advantages of low voltage is its relative safety. The likelihood of serious electric shock is lower compared to higher voltage levels. This is especially important in residential environments where people's safety is a priority.

  • Power Loss: Although low voltage is efficient for supply over short distances, you may experience power loss over long distances due to cable resistance. This is addressed by installing substations to maintain the quality of electricity.

Electrical medium voltage

Medium voltage electrical is in a higher voltage range compared to low voltage, generally between 1,000 and 33,000 volts.

This voltage level is optimal for power transmission over longer distances and is commonly used in industrial and commercial areas and in the distribution of electricity through the electrical supply network.

Main features

  • Power distribution: Medium voltage is used for the distribution of electrical power in urban and suburban areas. One difference between medium and low voltage is that medium voltage allows large amounts of power to be carried over longer distances with relatively lower power losses.

  • Industry: Industrial installations typically require higher power levels, and medium voltage is ideal for powering large machinery and equipment.

  • Transformers: This voltage is also used in combination with transformers to adjust the voltage according to the specific needs of the consumers.

High electrical voltage

High voltage electricity is the most powerful form of electricity used in long-distance transmission and interconnection between regions.

It is generally defined as any voltage greater than 33,000 volts. This voltage level is ideal for the efficient transmission of large amounts of energy through high voltage lines.

General characteristics

  • Long distance transmission: High voltage is used to transmit electricity over long distances with minimal energy losses. High-voltage transmission lines are a fundamental part of electrical networks that connect distant geographic regions.

  • Grid interconnection: The interconnection of electrical grids at a regional or national level often involves the use of high voltage. This provides efficient exchange of energy between different areas to ensure stability of supply.

  • Transformer Stations: At the receiving end, high-voltage electricity is reduced to safer, more usable levels by transformer stations before reaching homes, businesses and industries.

Publication Date: January 17, 2024
Last Revision: January 17, 2024