Location Of Solar Panels
Any implementation of a sustainable photovoltaic solar energy system implies the optimization of the resources to be used. This is the basis of the design and assembly of solar installations.
To achieve optimum optimization of solar radiation, that is, the use of the Sun, it is essential to know the solar trajectory, the profile of the needs and the conditioners of the location. All this involves determining the orientation and inclination of the solar panels in fixed installations to achieve the minimum cost of the kilowatt hour of this type of renewable energy.
For reasons of architectural adaptation, the panels are usually located on the roofs, although it is not the area closest to the accumulation system or energy meters. For security and architectural integration issues, the roof of the buildings is usually determined as a location for photovoltaic solar panels.
The roof is a structural element of the building that we must know basically four parameters: the available surface, the orientation, the structural load that can support and the incidence of shadows that can have. These elements will condition the arrangement of solar panels and anchoring systems.
The available area
The available surface will be determined by the space of the roof on which the property determines to locate the photovoltaic panels. It will be necessary to ensure that this surface is an easily accessible space for maintenance operations, while this space must be protected from vandalism or falling objects.
Orientation and inclination of the photovoltaic panels
The orientation and inclincación of the photovoltaic panels depends on the latitude in which we are. The optimum orientation of the panels can be south or north and the optimum inclination will depend on the latitude of the place, the time of year in which you want to use it and whether or not you have your own generator set.
inclination of solar panels depending on the time of year
Bearing in mind that on some occasion it is not possible to reach the conditions of suitable inclination and orientation, it will be necessary to evaluate, in any case, the losses of incident radiation due to the location conditions.
Incidence of shadows
To achieve the maximum use of a photovoltaic solar energy system, care must be taken of the incidence of possible shadows on the panels, both nearby (objects that momentarily cover the direct radiation of the Sun) and distant shadows (elements of the orography and / or landscape that hide the Sun from the area where the solar installation is located.
The effect of the shadows should be evaluated with great care when determining the location of the panels, since the shadows on the panels produce a significant reduction in production, especially if they occur in the middle of the day ( maximum insolation).
Separation between rows of solar panels
The separation between rows of photovoltaic panels must guarantee the non-overlapping of shadows between the rows of panels during the winter / summer solstice months.
This distance will be determined by the following expression, in the case of panels arranged horizontally (on a plane).
d = (h / tanH) · cosA
d, is the minimum distance between panel lines.
h, is the height of the panel line (vertically, from the top point on the floor).
tanH, is the tangent of the solar height (angle) in the most unfavorable month in our latitude.
cosA, is the cosine of the solar azimuth in the most unfavorable month (December) at 10 solar hours.
Last review: March 17, 2016