Components Of Photovoltaic Installations Connected To Grid
A photovoltaic solar system connected to the network has only three basic elements: a group of photovoltaic solar panels, an electric inverter, an interconnection panel with the commercial electricity network and an electric meter.
Photovoltaic panels are the most important elements for the use of this renewable energy, they are a type of solar panel whose function is to convert solar irradiation into electrical energy. It is the most important part of the solar system and is common both in systems connected to the grid and in isolated photovoltaic installations.
Electronic inverter or inverter. This device transforms the energy in the form of direct current that the solar panels provide, in alternating current of the same type and value as that transported by the electrical network.
Photovoltaic panels are a type of solar panel whose function is to convert solar irradiation into electrical energy. These panels are usually located on the roof of a building or integrated into any structural element of the same building. The photovoltaic panels can also be arranged directly on any land near the power grid.
Photovoltaic cells are responsible for converting solar radiation into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Usually, these cells are black or dark blue, are associated in groups and protected from the weather, forming photovoltaic modules. Several photovoltaic modules together with the electrical cables that connect them and with the support and fixing elements constitute what is known as a photovoltaic generator.
The photovoltaic generator is the element in charge of transforming solar radiation into electrical energy. This electricity is produced in direct current, and its characteristics depend on the energy intensity of solar radiation and the ambient temperature.
The current inverter is the element that transforms the electrical energy (direct current) produced by the panels into alternating current of the same characteristics as that of the electrical network. There are different types of inverters, but it is considered advisable to choose it depending on the size of the installation to be performed.
In any project of photovoltaic solar installation of connection to the network, the inverter is the heart of the system.It is very important to have clear the technical characteristics: power, working ranges, direct current- alternating current voltage, frequency and maximum power reached. The power accumulated by the number of inverters will determine the nominal power of the photovoltaic solar plant in any photovoltaic system connected to the grid.
For each photovoltaic system of connection to the network, we can find a whole range of equipment (expressed in its nominal power) for its use. In systems where more than 100 kilowatts are already installed, the equipment can be of nominal powers of 10 kilowatts onwards. Basically, the equipment is chosen that has the maximum of the protections established by the current regulations in its technical characteristics, so that it results in an increase in the security of the system and reduces installation costs in general.
Equipment that incorporates visualization, monitoring and control of data and operating parameters of the entire system is also highly valued. The display display on the equipment and the software for monitoring on the computer are increasingly important.
The photovoltaic generator needs two meters located between the inverter and the network, one to quantify the energy that is generated and injected into the network for billing, and another to quantify the small consumption (<2 kWh / year) of the photovoltaic inverter in absence of solar radiation, as well as guarantee for the electricity company of possible consumptions that the owner of the installation could make.
The electricity consumption of the building will be carried out from the network, with its own meter, this being an independent installation of the photovoltaic system.
Last review: November 1, 2019