Isolated photovoltaic installations
These installations are mainly used in locations where there is no access to the electricity grid and it is more economical to install a photovoltaic system than to lay a line between the grid and the point of consumption. The electricity generated is intended for self consumption.
The main applications of isolated systems are:
- Electrification of houses and buildings, mainly for lighting and low-power appliances
- Street lighting
- Agricultural and livestock applications
- Water Pumping and Treatment
- Telephony antennas isolated from the network
- Signaling and communications
Elements of a photovoltaic solar installation isolated from the mains
The basic configuration of isolated installations of the electricity grid is composed by the photovoltaic generator, a charge controller and a battery. The battery is the element in charge of accumulating the energy delivered by the panels during the hours of greater radiation for their use during the hours of low or zero insolation. The charge controller controls the charge of the battery, avoiding excessive overloads or discharges that reduce its life. With this configuration the consumption takes place in direct current.
The most used configuration in homes is the one composed by the photovoltaic generator, charge regulator, batteries and inverter, the latter to convert the energy accumulated in the batteries to alternating current, that is the one used for the majority of the applications.
For the calculation of this type of facility, the design criteria are different. In networked installations, an attempt is made to maximize annual production, orienting to the south and with the most favorable inclination. On the other hand, for isolated installations, the criterion must be to produce the maximum in the worst month, December, and so the rest of the year will have at least the energy calculated for the worst month, always covering the needs.
Last review: March 21, 2017