Panels photovoltaic solar energy

Installation of thermal solar energy

Solar power plant
Thermoelectric

Thermal

Geothermal heat pump

Geothermal heat pump

The geothermal heat pump is an air conditioning system for buildings that exploits the heat exchange with the superficial subsoil, by means of a heat pump. Since the heat in the subsoil comes largely from the interior of the Earth, geothermal energy of low enthalpy is classified as a source of renewable energy, although the heat pump itself consumes electricity, generally produced from other sources of energy (for example, fossil fuels).

The heat pump allows the exchange of heat between a "source" at a lower temperature than the "well", or the point where the heat is introduced. In a…

Isothermal process

Isothermal process

In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a thermodynamic transformation at constant temperature, that is, a variation of the state of a physical system during which the temperature of the system does not change with time. Devices called thermostats can maintain a constant temperature value.

The isothermal transformation of a perfect gas is described by Boyle's law which, in a pressure-volume diagram (or Clapeyron's plane), is represented by a branch of the equilateral hyperbola.

Isotherm of a perfect gas Calculation of heat and work exchanged

For isothermal gas…

Solar thermal energy

Solar thermal energy

The solar thermal energy consists of the use of energy from the Sun to transfer it to a medium that carries heat, usually water or air.

Among the different applications of solar thermal energy there is the possibility of generating electric power. The current technology allows to heat water with solar radiation to produce steam and subsequently obtain electrical energy.

Although the principle of operation is very similar there are two main applications of solar thermal energy:

  • Thermal single energy for use in homes and small installations
  • Large thermal solar…

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a type of renewable energy on a human scale that is obtained from the heat of the interior of the Earth. Equestrian thermal energy can be obtained without the combustion of any material, it is therefore a form of clean energy without carbon dioxide emissions.

The temperature in the inner layers of the Earth remains constant during the different seasons of the year. Generally the inner layers are hotter than the surface in winter and cooler in summer. This is because the surface layers are heated and cooled more easily according to the laws of thermodynamics.

Thermal energy

Thermal energy

Thermal energy is the energy released in the form of heat. It can also be called heat energy. In a more technical way we can define thermal energy as part of the internal energy of a thermodynamic system in equilibrium that is proportional to its absolute temperature and is increased or decreased by energy transfer.

The thermal energy can be transformed using a thermal engine (a thermoelectric power plant uses thermal energy to generate electricity); or in mechanical work (for example, a car, airplane or ship engine).

The obtaining of thermal energy can imply an environmental…

Geothermal energy to generate electricity

Geothermal energy to generate electricity

Geothermal energy is that energy that can be obtained by man through the use of heat from the interior of the Earth. This type of energy has many applications. One of these applications is the generation of electric power.

The generation of electricity from geothermal energy is a good complement for hydroelectric plants, which also has the advantage that it is constant throughout the year.

Geothermal plant

Geothermal power plants are the plants responsible for converting geothermal energy into electricity. A geothermal plant is a facility where electricity is generated…

Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy

Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a renewable energy obtained from the heat stored inside the Earth. Thanks to the laws of thermodynamics, thermal energy is transferred from the interior of the Earth to a fluid. In this way, energy is transported in the form of internal energy.

Geothermal energy is basicaly based simply on taking advantage of the fact that the subsoil temperature is warmer than on the surface, in winter, and instead cooler, in summer. This is a consequence of the fact that the surface layers of the Earth are heated and cooled much more easily than the interior, which is maintained…

Uses of geothermal energy

Uses of geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a long-term source of energy worldwide. With the geothermal energy stored in the top three kilometers of the Earth's crust, theoretically, the current energy demand could be covered for more than 100,000 years. However, only a small part of this energy is technically usable and the effects on the earth's crust during extensive heat dissipation are not yet clear.

When geothermal energy is used, a distinction is made between direct use, that is, the use of heat in itself, and indirect use, the use for conversion into electricity in a geothermal power plant. With the…

Geothermal. What is it?

Geothermal. What is it?

Geothermal energy is the discipline of Earth Sciences that studies the set of natural phenomena involved in the production and transfer of heat or thermal energy from within the Earth.

In a broad sense, the geothermal concept can also be extended to the study of other planets. Its principles are exploited at a technological level in the production of electricity and cogeneration through geothermal power plants from the associated geothermal energy.

The origin of earth's heat from a geothermal

The heat of the Earth's core was originally generated during the accretion of…

Thermal solar collectors

Thermal solar collectors

A solar thermal collector is a component of a solar thermal installation. A solar collector is a type of solar panel responsible for capturing solar energy and transforming it into heat. It is also called the solar thermal collector.

The solar collector is the basic element of this renewable energy source.

From solar collectors there are many types. The solar collector used will depend on the use that is going to be given. For example, if we want to heat a pool to a temperature of 25-28ºC, in the spring, we need a simple sensor, since the ambient temperature will easily be…

Renewable energy

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is that energy that comes from practically inexhaustible natural sources. They are considered inexhaustible either because of the large amount of energy they contain or because they can be regenerated naturally.

Among the main advantages of renewable energies we highlight the following:

Renewable energies are respectful with the environment and do not pollute.In this sense, they are safer and pose fewer health risks than other sources of non-renewable energy.

In most cases they are simple to dismantle and it is not necessary to guard their waste, as it…

Low temperature thermal solar energy

Low temperature thermal solar energy

Low thermal solar installations are considered those installations that provide useful heat at temperatures below 65ºC through solar energy.

A low-temperature solar thermal installation consists of solar collectors, two water circuits (primary and secondary), heat exchanger, accumulator, expansion vessel and pipes.

Circulation of the water inside the circuits can be obtained by thermosiphon, taking advantage of the density difference of the water at different temperatures or by means of a circulation pump, although in this case an external contribution of electrical energy…

Components of a solar thermal installation

Components of a solar thermal installation

The function of a solar thermal installation is to take advantage of solar energy to generate heat. The solar panels of these facilities capture the heat of the solar radiation that falls on them to heat a fluid. The different ways to take advantage of this hot fluid allows us to use this type of renewable energy in multiple applications.

A solar thermal installation consists of:

  • Solar collectors
  • Primary and secondary circuits
  • Heat exchanger
  • Accumulator, pumps
  • Glass of expansion
  • Pipelines
  • Main control panel.

Domestic hot water (DHW)

Domestic hot water (DHW)

One of the applications of solar thermal energy is the obtaining of sanitary hot water (ACS). Solar collectors capture the energy of solar radiation to increase the temperature of a fluid.

Domestic hot water (DHW) is water intended for human consumption (potable) that has been heated. It is used for sanitary uses (bathrooms, showers, etc.) and for other cleaning uses (washing dishes, washing machine, dishwasher, floor scrubbing). In terms of energy, the ACS is an important component to take into account, since it represents between 25 and 40% of the energy consumption of homes.

As…

Zero law of thermodynamics

Zero law of thermodynamics

The zero law of thermodynamics speaks of what we experience every day: two systems that are in thermal equilibrium with a third are in equilibrium with each other. It is said that two bodies are in thermal equilibrium when, on contacting each other, their state variables do not change. Around this simple idea the zero law is established.

Every law of physics has its relevance, as well as the zero law of thermodynamics, which curiously was the last law to be introduced in literature. After the realization that heat is a form of energy that could be transformed into another, thermology…

Advantages and disadvantages of solar energy

Advantages and disadvantages of solar energy

In general, both photovoltaic solar energy and, above all, solar thermal energy has a very good acceptance in society. However, it is convenient to know the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy to reinforce or contrast our opinion.

When we talk about energy sources, most people are positioned in favor or against a certain type (solar energy, nuclear energy, wind power, etc.). The arguments for positioning are varied: energy efficiency, pollution, safety, cost ... Therefore, we will try to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy in the most objective way possible.

Frequently asked questions about solar energy

Frequently asked questions about solar energy

In this section we intend to answer the main questions related to solar energy.

Generally, these are general topics that could be located in several sections of the web. Our intention is to expand this section in the future to publish generalist articles and curiosities of nuclear energy.

Most of the questions are focused on small solar installations, comparative with solar thermal energy and photovoltaic solar energy.

In the future we will also answer on more oriented questions in the field of physics: thermodynamics, forms of energy, mechanical energy, potential energy,…

Watt - Power unit

Watt - Power unit

The watt (symbol: W) is the power unit of the International System, it is the amount of energy in joules that is converted, used or dissipated in one second. It is a derived unit that takes its name from the engineer, inventor and constructor of Scottish instruments James Watt, for his contribution to the development of the steam engine, which was one of the triggers of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

The watt was adopted by the Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1889, which meant its international recognition as a power unit, incorporating…

Hybrid system

Hybrid system

Hybrid solar energy systems are hybrid energy systems that combine the solar energy of a photovoltaic system with another source of energy that generates energy. A common type is a hybrid photovoltaic diesel system, which combines solar photovoltaic (PV) and diesel generators, or diesel generator sets, since PV has only a marginal cost and is treated with priority in the network. Diesel generator sets are used to constantly fill the gap between the current load and the actual power generated by the photovoltaic system.

Since the solar energy fluctuates and the generation capacity of…

Parabolic cylinder solar collector

Parabolic cylinder solar collector

The parabolic cylinder solar collector is another type of solar thermal collector. This type of solar panel used in solar thermal installations uses parabolic cylinders to concentrate all the solar radiation in a point. Instead of heliostats, this type of collector employs parabolic trough mirrors. For the focus of the parabola passes a pipe that receives the concentrated rays of the Sun, where the fluid is heated, usually a thermal oil. Currently the fluid reaches temperatures close to 400º C.

Until recently, the use of thermal solar CCP concentration systems was restricted to…

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies and describes the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a thermodynamic system, as a result of processes that involve changes in the temperature and energy state variables.

Classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of macroscopic system, that is, a portion of physical mass or conceptually separated from the external environment, which is often assumed for convenience that is not disturbed by the exchange of energy with the system. The state of a macroscopic system that is in equilibrium conditions…

Stirling engine

Stirling engine

The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling, a Scottish priest. The goal was to get a less dangerous engine than the steam engine.

The operation of the Stirling engine is based on the expansion and contraction of a gas that can be helium, hydrogen, nitrogen or air. This gas is forced to cycle cyclically from a cold source where it contracts to a hot source where it expands. It is considered as a thermal engine (thermodynamic engine) due to the presence of a temperature gradient between the two thermal sources.

Originally, the Stirling engine was conceived as an…

Internal energy - Thermodynamics

Internal energy - Thermodynamics

In thermodynamics, the internal energy is the total energy contained in a thermodynamic system.

The internal energy is the energy that is needed to create the system. According to this definition, the energy to displace the environment of the system, any energy related to external force fields (potential energy, gravitational energy, etc.) or any energy associated with the movement (for example, kinetic energy) is excluded from the internal energy. .

The internal energy of a system can be modified by exercising a work on it or by heating it (providing thermal energy). If we look…

What is solar thermal energy?

What is solar thermal energy?

Thermosolar energy is a technology to generate electricity or electricity by thermal energy from the Sun (solar heat). It is a type of solar thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is characterized by using solar radiation to heat a fluid. This hot fluid (usually water) can be used for many applications such as heating or hot water (DHW). But another application that can be given is the generation of electric power.

This type of energy is also often called thermoelectric power.

This process of electricity generation takes place in the so-called thermoelectric solar or solar thermal…

Flat solar collector

Flat solar collector

The flat plate thermal solar collector has a good cost / effectiveness ratio in moderate climates and adapts correctly to a large number of applications (hot water heating, pool heating, heating support, preheating industrial fluids, etc.).

We can distinguish two basic types of flat plate collectors, depending on the configuration of the absorber: the "grid type" parallel, in the vertical and horizontal versions and the "serpentine type" series. Basically, the difference between the two is:

  • The parallel configuration favors that the temperature of the collector can be stratified…

Disadvantages of solar energy

Disadvantages of solar energy

The characteristics of solar energy imply certain advantages with respect to other sources of energy.

Although the characteristics are different in photovoltaic solar installations and solar thermal installations, we will treat the disadvantages globally.

Certain disadvantages of solar energy may imply that a solar installation may be unfeasible. The aspects to consider are the following:

  • Energy efficiency is poor compared to other energy sources.
  • The economic cost compared to other options.
  • Performance is a function of the weather.
  • Limitations…

Advantages of solar energy

Advantages of solar energy

Solar energy allows to take advantage of the energy that comes from solar radiation. One way to take advantage of sunlight is to convert the radiation into electrical energy (photovoltaic solar energy) or thermal energy (solar thermal energy). Photovoltaic solar energy requires a chemical process to obtain a continuous current, while solar thermal energy only requires a thermodynamic process.

The characteristics of solar energy imply certain advantages with respect to other sources of energy. Mainly if the other sources of energy are non-renewable energies that come from fossil fuels.…

Heat

Heat

In physics, in particular in thermodynamics, heat is defined as the contribution of transformed energy as a result of a chemical or nuclear reaction and transferred between two systems or between two parts of the same system. This energy is not attributable to a job or a conversion between two different types of energy. Heat is, therefore, a form of transferred energy and not a form of energy contained as internal energy.

As the energy is exchanged, the heat is measured in the International System in joules. In practice, however, it is often still used as the unit of measurement of calories,…

Solar collector

Solar collector

Solar collectors are the elements that capture solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy, into heat. It is a type of solar panel designed for use in solar thermal installations. It is also known as a solar collector.

The function of solar thermal energy is to take advantage of solar energy to obtain heat, to heat a fluid. Unlike photovoltaic solar energy whose function is to generate electricity.

As solar collectors, those with flat plates, those with vacuum tubes and absorber collectors without protection or isolation are known. The flat (or flat plate) collection systems…

Temperature

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity of matter that expresses quantitatively the common notions of heat and cold. The objects of low temperature are cold, while objects of higher temperatures are considered warm or hot. The temperature is measured quantitatively with thermometers. The thermometers can be calibrated with respect to different temperature scales.

Scales to measure temperature

The three most common scales to measure the temperature are:

  • The Celsius scale (degrees centigrade)
  • The Kelvin scale
  • The Fahrenheit scale

Almost everyone…

Solar panel. What is it?

Solar panel. What is it?

A solar panel is a device to take advantage of solar energy. It can also be called a solar module.

Photovoltaic solar panels contain a set of solar cells that convert light into electricity. It is called solar because the sun is one of the strongest energy sources for this type of use. Solar cells are sometimes called photovoltaic cells, and photovoltaics literally means "light-electricity". Solar cells have the photovoltaic effect to absorb the sun's energy and cause electrical current to flow between two charged layers in the opposite direction.

The denomination of solar panel…

Origin of Earth's heat

Origin of Earth's heat

At the end of the 17th century, the Earth was conceived as a molten mass with a solid crust as a result of its cooling. It was not until the 19th century that the first calculations of the age of the Earth based on its thermal evolution were drawn up, and the term geothermal was first defined as the scientific discipline that studies earth's heat, origin of this heat, distribution and use.

Precisely, the use of this thermal energy is what has led to the development of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy allows us to take advantage of the heat energy inside the Earth in different applications,…

Solar thermal power plant

Solar thermal power plant

A solar thermal power plant or thermosolar power plant is an industrial facility in which solar radiation is used to generate electricity. Solar radiation is used to heat a fluid. Using fluid, taking advantage of the laws of thermodynamics, the necessary power is produced to move an alternator to generate electrical energy as in a classic thermoelectric power station.

Operation of a solar thermal power station

The operation of a solar thermal power plant is based on obtaining heat from solar radiation and transferring it to a heat carrier medium. This heat carrier is usually…

Solar energy

Solar energy

The term solar energy refers to the use of the energy that comes from the Sun. It is a type of renewable energy. The energy contained in the Sun is so abundant that it is considered inexhaustible. The Sun takes 5 billion years emitting solar radiation and it is estimated that it has not yet reached 50% of its existence.

Solar energy, in addition to being inexhaustible is abundant: the amount of energy that the Sun pours daily on…

History of solar energy

History of solar energy

Within the history of solar energy, in one form or another, solar energy has always been present in the life of the planet being this imprescidible for the development of life. However, the way in which human civilization has exploited it invented new strategies and tools has undergone a long evolution.

The Sun is indispensable for the existence of life on the planet: it is responsible for the water cycle, photosynthesis, etc. Already the first civilizations realized this and, as civilizations have evolved, they have also evolved techniques to harness their energy. At the beginning they…

Medium temperature solar thermal energy

Medium temperature solar thermal energy

Low-temperature solar thermal energy is used in applications that require temperatures between 100ºC and 250ºC. From 80ºC the flat collectors practically no longer have any performance and it is necessary to resort to other capture systems.

Low-temperature thermal energy systems are used mainly for applications that demand thermal energy, that is, heat between 125º C and 400º C. To reach higher temperatures it is necessary to concentrate the solar radiation.

For this type of solar thermal energy, two types of solar collectors are used:

  • Solar…

Applications of solar thermal energy

Applications of solar thermal energy

Solar thermal energy uses solar radiation to increase the internal energy of an element. Said in one way: to heat an element. Normally a liquid is heated to be able to transport this energy more easily to the place where you want to take advantage of it.

In single-family homes it is very common to see solar collectors. The function of these collectors is to heat sanitary hot water for domestic use or for heating. They are generally support systems but allow considerable financial savings. The installation of these solar collectors is very popular in certain areas due to its low installation…

Hybrid solar panel - PVT

Hybrid solar panel - PVT

A hybrid solar panel (more correctly defined as a PVT collector, an acronym P hoto V oltaic and T hermal) is a device that allows the conversion of the energy radiated by the sun partly into electrical energy and partly into thermal energy through the combination of the effect of a photovoltaic module and a thermal solar panel (photovoltaic cogeneration).

Therefore, a hybrid solar panel is composed of a photovoltaic collector to which a heat exchanger is associated, capable of heating a fluid thanks to the part of the solar radiation not converted into electrical energy.

Origin…

Thermodynamic processes

Thermodynamic processes

In physics, the thermodynamic process is called the evolution of certain quantities (or properties) properly thermodynamic relative to a particular thermodynamic system. From the point of view of thermodynamics, these transformations must proceed from a state of initial equilibrium to a final one; that is, that the magnitudes that undergo a variation when passing from one state to another must be perfectly defined in said initial and final states.

In this way the thermodynamic processes can be interpreted as the result of the interaction of one system with another after being eliminated…

Passive solar energy

Passive solar energy

In the design of passive solar buildings, windows, walls and floors are made to collect, store and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.

The key to designing a passive solar building is to make the most of the local climate by performing a precise site analysis. The elements to be considered include the placement and size of the window, and the type of glazing, thermal insulation, thermal mass and shading. Passive solar…

Solar concentrator

Solar concentrator

A solar concentrator is a concentration system of solar energy that is used to convert solar energy into thermal energy. Its operation is based on the exploitation of the reflection of the solar rays obtained through reflective surfaces (substantially of mirrors), in order to concentrate on a receiver of contained size. Similar to a magnifying glass focusing its light on a point, the concentrators reflect sunlight by means of an arrangement of mirrors aligned towards a lens capable of capturing that energy for its use.

In general, heat is converted into mechanical energy by means of…

Adiabatic wall

Adiabatic wall

In thermodynamics an adiabatic wall is a wall that does not allow the transfer of heat from one side to another. An adiabatic wall does not let out or enter any heat.

Adiabatic walls are theoretical concepts because if in case tehey would exist they would be a perfect thermal insulation. At present, any thermal insulation, however good it may be, always allows some transfer of heat energy.

Adiabatic process

An adiabatic process is a process in which the system does not exchange heat with its surroundings. An isentropic process is an adiabatic process that is also reversible.

First Law of Thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics was announced by Julius Robert von Mayer in 1841. It is the principle of conservation of energy.

Definition of the first law of thermodynamics: The total energy of an isolated system is neither created nor destroyed, it remains constant. Energy only transforms from one type to another. When one energy class disappears, an equivalent quantity of another class must be produced.

A body can have a certain speed with what has kinetic energy. If it loses speed, this kinetic energy that it loses becomes another type of energy, whether it is potential energy…

Adiabatic process

Adiabatic process

An adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which the system does not exchange heat with its surroundings. An adiabatic process may also be isentropic, which means that the process may be reversible.

The adiabatic process provides a rigorous conceptual basis for the theory used to expose the first law of thermodynamics and, as such, is a key concept in thermodynamics.

The term adiabatic refers to elements that impede the transfer of heat with the environment. An isolated wall is quite close to an adiabatic limit. Hence the adiabatic wall term appears.

A process that…

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which the atmosphere of a planet passes solar radiation from the Sun, but instead prevents or hinders the thermal energy output of the planet.

It is called greenhouse effect due to the similarity with the operation of the greenhouses that are able to retain the heat inside. The operation is not exactly the same, but it is very similar. The difference is that the greenhouse uses the glass and not the gases in the atmosphere to retain heat. That is why this natural phenomenon has been called the greenhouse effect.

When we talk about the greenhouse…

Definition of fossil fuels

Definition of fossil fuels

Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources because they require millions of years for their formation in a natural way. Due to their high calorific power they are useful energy sources to generate thermal energy and their use has allowed the great economic and demographic growth linked to the industrial revolution of the 19th century. Although now they are fundamental for our economy. In 2007, the combustion of coal, oil and natural gas accounted for 86.4% of the world's primary energy. However, its combustion is one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution and global warming, which…

Electric generator

Electric generator

An electric generator is a device designed to produce electricity from a different form of energy.

The different forms of energy, which are transformed into electricity, are usually mechanical energy, chemical energy, photovoltaic energy or directly thermal energy.

Depending on their characteristics, there are several types of electric generators. The analysis of these generators is not limited only to the generators used in photovoltaic solar energy, but we will make a brief review of all types of electric generators.

Photovoltaic generators

Photovoltaic generators…

Solar accumulator

Solar accumulator

A solar accumulator is a reservoir that separates the energy supply from the energy capture. That is, because we will not always need energy at the moment of solar radiation, the compiler is entrusted to store this energy to supply it when needed.

For this, the accumulator stores thermal energy from the solar collectors.

When the system needs, for example, domestic hot water the accumulator supplies this hot water and replaces it with cold water that comes from the network. The cold water will pass through the circuit of solar collectors exposed to solar radiation and increase…

Types of photovoltaic panels

Types of photovoltaic panels

In the market there are several types of photovoltaic solar panels for domestic use. The most common types are monocrystalline photovoltaic panels, polycrystalline solar panels and thin-film solar panels.

Around 90% of the photovoltaic technology is based on the use of some silicon variation. In the case of solar panels intended for domestic use, this percentage is even higher.

The main difference between the different types of photovoltaic panels is the purity of the silicon used. The purer the silicon, the better aligned its molecules are, and the better it converts solar energy…

Fossil fuels

Fossil fuels

Fossil fuels are often referred to as a type of negative, polluting, environmentally damaging energy.

Currently, fossil fuels are the most widely used energy source in the world. It is used to generate electrical energy but above all it is also used to generate mechanical energy (cars, heat engines, etc.).

What are fossil fuels?

Fossil fuels are those fuels that come from a process of partial decomposition of organic matter.

Fossil fuels originate from a transformation process of millions of years of plants and vegetables (cases of oil, coal and natural gas).

Non-renewable energy

Non-renewable energy

Non-renewable energies are the methods of obtaining energy through a source of exhaustible energy. The concept of non-renewable energy is taken into account at the scale of human life, since certain processes, such as the accumulation of carbon, have taken up to five hundred million years.

In general, non-renewable energy is what consumes some type of fuel (oil, coal, uranium ...). While renewable energy uses other types of energy resources (solar radiation, the kinetic energy of the wind, the force of water, the movement of the tides, etc.). Although properly speaking some fuels, in…

High-temperature solar thermal energy

We refer to hight-temperature solar thermal to those collectors who work at temperatures above 500 ° C. They are used for power generation.

The technologies used in hight-temperature solar thermal energy are:

  • Parabolic trough solar collectors
  • Central tower
  • Parabolic dishes or parabolic reflector
  • Linear Fresnel concentrators
Parabolic trough solar collectors

Vacuum tube solar collector

Vacuum tube solar collector

A solar collector of vacuum tubes is a type of solar panel that takes advantage of solar thermal energy. This type of solar panel is formed by linear collectors housed in vacuum glass tubes.

The solar collector of vacuum tubes consists of a set of cylindrical tubes. The tubes are formed by a selective absorber, located on a reflector settlement and surrounded by a transparent glass cylinder.

Between the transparent outer tube and the inner absorber, the vacuum has been made. With this, conduction and convection losses from the absorbent surface are avoided and this fact allows…