Panels photovoltaic solar energy

Installation of thermal solar energy

Solar power plant
Thermoelectric

Pressure

Fracking

Fracking

Hydraulic fracturing or geotechnical fracking is the exploitation of the pressure of a fluid, typically water, to create and then propagate a fracture in a layer of rock in the subsoil. Fracking is carried out after a drilling in a rock formation containing hydrocarbons (oil or natural gas). The objective is to increase the permeability. Improving permeability improves the production of oil or gas contained in the subsoil and increases its recovery rate.

Hydraulic fractures in rocks can be both natural and created by humans; they are created and enlarged by the pressure of the fluid…

Isobaric Process

Isobaric Process

In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a change in the state of a certain amount of matter in which the pressure does not change, but one or more of its state variables. An example of this is air in a cylinder with a freely movable piston to which heat is supplied. Due to the increase in temperature, the volume will increase, but the pressure will remain constant.

The isobaric process is governed by Charles's law. The Frenchman Jacques A. Charles (1742-1822) was the first to make measurements about gases that expand when their temperature increases.

Examples of isobaric processes

Pelton Turbine

Pelton Turbine

The Pelton turbine is a type of turbine used in the hydraulic energy industry within the field of renewable energy.

A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine of the impulse type used in hydroelectric power plants with high vertical height. It was Invent to by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s and Amend significantly by other inventors beyond late 1800. The Pelton turbine is a further development of traditional water wheel. The Pelton turbine transforms the hydraulic energy into the impulse of one or more jets…

Francis Turbine

Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine used in hydraulic power installations with a considerable height of fall.

The Francis turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine built by British-American engineer James Bicheno Francis. The function of the Francis turbine is mainly to generate electricity with the help of a generator. Francis turbines have a high utilization capacity of more than 90% and a wide range of activities compared to the height (building drop) of the fluid flowing through the turbine. This is particularly emphasized in water where it achieves optimum performance in a building…

Isothermal Process

Isothermal Process

In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a thermodynamic transformation at constant temperature, that is, a variation of the state of a physical system during which the temperature of the system does not change with time. Devices called thermostats can maintain a constant temperature value.

The isothermal transformation of a perfect gas is described by Boyle's law which, in a pressure-volume diagram (or Clapeyron's plane), is represented by a branch of the equilateral hyperbola.

Isotherm of a perfect gas Calculation of heat and work exchanged

For isothermal gas…

Thermodynamic Processes

Thermodynamic Processes

In physics, the thermodynamic process is called the evolution of certain quantities (or properties) properly thermodynamic relative to a particular thermodynamic system. From the point of view of thermodynamics, these transformations must proceed from a state of initial equilibrium to a final one; that is, that the magnitudes that undergo a variation when passing from one state to another must be perfectly defined in said initial and final states.

In this way the thermodynamic processes can be interpreted as the result of the interaction of one system with another after being eliminated…

Geothermal Energy To Generate Electricity

Geothermal Energy To Generate Electricity

Geothermal energy is that energy that can be obtained by man through the use of heat from the interior of the Earth. This type of energy has many applications. One of these applications is the generation of electric power.

The generation of electricity from geothermal energy is a good complement for hydroelectric plants, which also has the advantage that it is constant throughout the year.

Geothermal plant

Geothermal power plants are the plants responsible for converting geothermal energy into electricity. A geothermal plant is a facility where electricity is generated…

Enthalpy

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a term linked to the field of thermodynamics. The enthalpy symbol is H.

Enthalpy is also known as absolute enthalpy or amount of heat.

We define enthalpy as a physical quantity defined in the field of classical thermodynamics so that it measures the maximum energy of a thermodynamic system theoretically capable of being eliminated from it in the form of heat or thermal energy.

Enthalpy is particularly useful in the understanding and description of isobaric processes: the constant pressure, the enthalpy change are directly associated with the energy received…

Hydraulic Turbines

Hydraulic Turbines

A turbine is a turbomachine that converts the energy of flow of a fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy by means of a system of rotating blades. This mechanical energy can be used to power another machine or an electric generator.

The turbine name was proposed by Claude Burdin during an engineering contest in 1828. This name comes from the Latin turbine, which means Foucault current.

A simple turbine consists of a single rotor with vanes, which provide exchange of energy with the flow. The first examples of turbines are wind turbines and water mills (wind power and hydropower).

Fracking

Fracking

Fracking, or hydraulic fracture, is an Anglo-Saxon term that is used to refer to a technique to increase the extraction of fossil fuels natural gas and oil from soil.

Hydraulic fracturing or geotechnical fracking is the exploitation of the pressure of a fluid, typically water, to create and then propagate a fracture in a layer of rock in the subsoil. Fracking is carried out after a drilling in a rock formation containing hydrocarbons (oil or natural gas). The objective is to increase the permeability. Improving permeability improves the production of oil or gas contained in the subsoil…

Rated Voltage

Rated Voltage

In electricity, the rated voltage of an electrical device is the voltage that must not be exceeded in normal operation. The nominal adjective is because that tension usually serves to characterize the device, to name it. The nominal value indicates the theoretical or ideal value of anything that can be quantified, as opposed to the real value, which is what is obtained in a given measurement.

Another definition of rated voltage: The rated voltage is the specific potential difference for which a device or installation is designed.

As it is a nominal value it implies that the voltage…

Solar Heating Systems With Forced Circulation

In many cases it is not viable to install solar power equipment for the production of hot water thermosyphon, since often the location of the solar collectors is above the tank (for example, sensors on the roof and inside the accumulator & rsquo; housing, golf sensors, etc.)

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In this type of installation, the water flowing between the collector and the accumulator can not do it by natural convection since warmer water (sensors) and is at its highest point and there is no natural force that makes displace the cold water that is already at the lowest point and is the heaviest.

Thermosyphon Solar Systems

These equipments have a natural circulation based on convection currents formed in the fluid at different temperatures.

If we heat a water tank at the bottom when the bottom water warms, it becomes less dense and rises to the surface where it cools. Then returns to the bottom of the container and thus a natural circulation flow is generated.

This is the operating principle of a thermosiphon team, which will be essential that:

  • The solar collector (heat sources) is always located below the level of the accumulator.
  • The primary circuit is as short as possible…

Adiabatic Process

Adiabatic Process

An adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which the system does not exchange heat with its surroundings. An adiabatic process may also be isentropic, which means that the process may be reversible.

The adiabatic process provides a rigorous conceptual basis for the theory used to expose the first law of thermodynamics and, as such, is a key concept in thermodynamics.

The term adiabatic refers to elements that impede the transfer of heat with the environment. An isolated wall is quite close to an adiabatic limit. Hence the adiabatic wall term appears.

A process that…

Thermodynamic System

Thermodynamic System

A thermodynamic system is a portion of the material space, separated from the rest of the thermodynamic universe (that is, from the external environment) by means of a real or imaginary control surface (or edge), rigid or deformable.

A thermodynamic system can be the seat of internal transformations and exchanges of matter and / or energy with the external environment (that is, everything external to the system that interacts with it).

Classification of thermodynamic systems

Within thermodynamics there are three main types of thermodynamic systems: open, closed and isolated.…

Wind Power

Wind Power

Wind energy is the energy obtained from the wind. This renewable energy takes advantage of the kinetic energy generated by the effect of air currents, and is transformed into other forms useful for human activities. Wind power has been used since ancient times to move sail-driven boats or operate milling machinery when moving its blades.

When operating by wind, an inexhaustible resource is considered that wind energy is a renewable energy.

Currently, wind energy is mainly used to produce electricity through wind turbines. This type of energy can also be used in other applications…