# Kinetic

## Kinetic energy

The kinetic energy or energy of movement is a form of energy that has a body in motion due to mass inertia. In non-relativistic frames of reference, the kinetic energy is directly proportional to the mass and the square of the velocity. It is the same as the work that needs to be done so that the body goes from the state of rest to the condition in which it is found.

In classical mechanics we make the following considerations:

• A body with mass m that moves at a velocity v has a kinetic energy Ec = (m · v 2 ) / 2.
• If the body…

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## Internal Energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy is the total energy contained in a thermodynamic system.

The internal energy is the energy that is needed to create the system. According to this definition, the energy to displace the environment of the system, any energy related to external force fields (potential energy, gravitational energy, etc.) or any energy associated with the movement (for example, kinetic energy) is excluded from the internal energy. .

The internal energy of a system can be modified by exercising a work on it or by heating it (providing thermal energy). If we look…

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## Hydropower

Hydropower is a source of renewable energy or alternative energy. This renewable energy exploits the transformation of gravitational potential energy, possessed by a certain mass of water at a certain elevation, in kinetic energy to overcome a certain difference in height. The mechanical energy obtained can be used directly to rotate the shaft of a turbine or in some application or machine that works using hydropower. The most common is to use this kinetic energy to generate electrical energy. In this case, we talk about hydroelectric power.

In hydroelectric power, the kinetic energy…

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## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies and describes the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a thermodynamic system, as a result of processes that involve changes in the temperature and energy state variables.

Classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of macroscopic system, that is, a portion of physical mass or conceptually separated from the external environment, which is often assumed for convenience that is not disturbed by the exchange of energy with the system. The state of a macroscopic system that is in equilibrium conditions…

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## Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine used in hydropower installations with a considerable height of fall.

The Francis turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine built by British-American engineer James Bicheno Francis. The function of the Francis turbine is mainly to generate electricity with the help of a generator. Francis turbines have a high utilization capacity of more than 90% and a wide range of activities compared to the height (building drop) of the fluid flowing through the turbine. This is particularly emphasized in water where it achieves optimum performance in a building…

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## Wind Power

What is wind power?

Wind energy is a renewable energy whose origin is wind. This energy source takes advantage of the kinetic energy generated by the effect of air currents to transform it into other useful forms for human activities. Historically, wind energy has been used since ancient times to move sail-driven boats or operate mill machinery when moving its blades.

The most common use of wind energy is the generation of electricity. Wind turbines are machines that convert the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy.

Wind energy is an abundant, renewable,…

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## Pelton Turbine

The Pelton turbine is a type of turbine used in the hydropower industry within the field of renewable energy.

A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine of the impulse type used in hydroelectric power plants with high vertical height. It was Invent to by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s and Amend significantly by other inventors beyond late 1800. The Pelton turbine is a further development of traditional water wheel. The Pelton turbine transforms the hydropower into the impulse of one or more jets of water at…

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## Solar efficiency

The efficiency of photovoltaic cells is one of the elements that determine the production of a photovoltaic solar energy installation. The other factors that determine the performance of a solar plant are latitude and climate.

The conversion efficiency value of a photovoltaic cell depends on several factors. When we refer to conversion efficiency, we refer implicitly to the thermodynamic efficiency, to the separation efficiency of the load carrier, to the reflectance efficiency and to the values ​​of conduction efficiency. These parameters are difficult to measure…

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## First Law Of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics was announced by Julius Robert von Mayer in 1841. It is the principle of conservation of energy.

Definition of the first law of thermodynamics: The total energy of an isolated system is neither created nor destroyed, it remains constant. Energy only transforms from one type to another. When one energy class disappears, an equivalent quantity of another class must be produced.

A body can have a certain speed with what has kinetic energy. If it loses speed, this kinetic energy that it loses becomes another type of energy, whether it is potential energy…

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## Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy that comes from virtually inexhaustible natural sources. They are considered inexhaustible either because of the large amount of energy they contain or because they can be regenerated naturally.

Among the main advantages of renewable energies we highlight the following:

Renewable energies are respectful with the environment and do not pollute. In this sense, they are safer and pose fewer health risks than other sources of non-renewable energy. The more energy generated by clean energies will need to generate fossil energy mes and decrease,…

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## Temperature

Definition of temperature: The temperature is the thermodynamic magnitude that shows the thermal energy of one body in relation to another.

Although the definition of temperature is simple and concise, you can explain what the temperature is in a more extensive way:

What is the temperature?

Temperature is a physical quantity of matter that quantifies the common notions of heat and cold. The objects of low temperature perceive them cold, while objects of higher temperatures we consider them warm or hot. This physiological sensation of cold and heat is generated…

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## Heat

In physics, in particular in thermodynamics, heat is defined as the contribution of transformed energy as a result of a chemical or nuclear reaction and transferred between two systems or between two parts of the same system. This energy is not attributable to a job or a conversion between two different types of energy. Heat is, therefore, a form of transferred energy and not a form of energy contained as internal energy.

As the energy is exchanged, the heat is measured in the International System in joules. In practice, however, it is often still used as the unit of measurement of calories,…

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