Hydraulic fracturing or geotechnical fracking is the exploitation of the pressure of a fluid, typically water, to create and then propagate a fracture in a layer of rock in the subsoil. Fracking is carried out after a drilling in a rock formation containing hydrocarbons (oil or natural gas). The objective is to increase the permeability. Improving permeability improves the production of oil or gas contained in the subsoil and increases its recovery rate.
Hydraulic fractures in rocks can be both natural and created by humans; they are created and enlarged by the pressure of the fluid…
A turbine is a turbomachine that converts the flow energy of a fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy by means of a system of rotating blades. This mechanical energy can be used to power another machine or an electric generator.
The turbine name was proposed by Claude Burdin during an engineering contest in 1828. This name comes from the Latin turbine, which means Foucault current.
A simple turbine consists of a single rotor with blades, which provide energy exchange with the flow. The first examples of turbines are wind turbines and water mills, that is, for wind…
The Francis turbine is a hydraulic turbine used in hydropower installations with a considerable height of fall.
The Francis turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine built by British-American engineer James Bicheno Francis. The function of the Francis turbine is mainly to generate electricity with the help of a generator. Francis turbines have a high utilization capacity of more than 90% and a wide range of activities compared to the height (building drop) of the fluid flowing through the turbine. This is particularly emphasized in water where it achieves optimum performance in a building…
A mini-hydraulic power plant is a power plant that uses hydropower for the production of electricity. They are characterized by the fact of having a reduced installed power. Its small size implies the use of structures of much smaller size than a normal dam. These mini-hydraulic plants are safer, thanks to the smaller volume of water in the basin, and which also have a lower environmental impact and landscape.
There is no globally accepted limit for which a hydroelectric plant is defined as mini-hydraulic. According to the ESHA (European Association of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants),…
Hydropower is a source of renewable energy or alternative energy. This renewable energy exploits the transformation of gravitational potential energy, possessed by a certain mass of water at a certain elevation, in kinetic energy to overcome a certain difference in height. The mechanical energy obtained can be used directly to rotate the shaft of a turbine or in some application or machine that works using hydropower. The most common is to use this kinetic energy to generate electrical energy. In this case, we talk about hydroelectric power.
In hydroelectric power, the kinetic energy…
Hydropower is the electric power produced in a hydroelectric power station from a current, vertical or horizontal, of a river. In other words, it is electricity (electrical energy) obtained from hydraulic energy (mechanical energy of water in movement of rivers, lakes and marshes).
The difference between hydroelectric and hydraulic energy is that hydraulic energy can be used to generate electrical energy but also to obtain energy of another type, for example, mechanical energy. While hydropower refers only to the use of hydropower to obtain electric power or electricity.
In electricity, the rated voltage of an electrical device is the voltage that must not be exceeded in normal operation. The nominal adjective is because that tension usually serves to characterize the device, to name it. The nominal value indicates the theoretical or ideal value of anything that can be quantified, as opposed to the real value, which is what is obtained in a given measurement.
Another definition of rated voltage: The rated voltage is the specific potential difference for which a device or installation is designed.
As it is a nominal value it implies that the voltage…
Renewable energy is that energy that comes from practically inexhaustible natural sources. They are considered inexhaustible either because of the large amount of energy they contain or because they can be regenerated naturally.
Among the main advantages of renewable energies we highlight the following:
Renewable energies are respectful with the environment and do not pollute.In this sense, they are safer and pose fewer health risks than other sources of non-renewable energy.
In most cases they are simple to dismantle and it is not necessary to guard their waste, as it…
Tidal energy is the energy obtained from the movements of water caused by the tides. It represents a source of renewable energy since it uses an inexhaustible resource.
The tide, the rhythmic rise and fall of sea level caused by the gravitational action of the moon and the sun, generally has a width (difference between high tide and low tide) of less than one meter, but in some areas, due to the particular configuration of the site, the difference in height can reach high values, interesting for the exploitation and production of energy, which is currently predominantly electrical. In…
The function of a solar thermal installation is to take advantage of solar energy to generate heat. The solar panels of these facilities capture the heat of the solar radiation that falls on them to heat a fluid. The different ways to take advantage of this hot fluid allows us to use this type of renewable energy in multiple applications.
A solar thermal installation consists of:
- Solar collectors
- Primary and secondary circuits
- Heat exchanger
- Accumulator, pumps
- Glass of expansion
- Main control panel.
The Pelton turbine is a type of turbine used in the hydropower industry within the field of renewable energy.
A Pelton turbine is a hydraulic turbine of the impulse type used in hydroelectric power plants with high vertical height. It was Invent to by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s and Amend significantly by other inventors beyond late 1800. The Pelton turbine is a further development of traditional water wheel. The Pelton turbine transforms the hydropower into the impulse of one or more jets of water at…