Biofuels are fuels obtained from biomass (agricultural crops such as palm oil, sugar cane, soybeans, etc.) or from organic waste. The fuel generated is a liquid fuel that can be used in the engines of vehicles.
This energy source is considered non-renewable energy because the generation and recovery time of the fields is less than the consumption time.
The biofuels generated can be of two types:
- Bioethanol, a substitute for gasoline, produced from sugarcane, beet, corn, wheat and oats.
- Biodiesel, a substitute for diesel, produced by plants such as sunflower,…
The generation of biofuels, a priori, represents several advantages with respect to obtaining fossil fuels used to obtain fossil energy. The main advantage is that the regeneration of resources is not millions of years as it happens with coal, oil or natural gas. Anyway, the regeneration of biofuels is not fast enough to be considered a renewable energy source either. They are considered, then, a non-renewable source of energy.
On the other hand, biofuels continue to be an indirect way of harnessing solar energy. In this case, solar energy is exploited thanks to the photosynthesis of…
Fossil fuels are often spoken of as a type of negative, polluting energy, harmful to the environment. Fossil fuels are considered a non-renewable energy source due to the difficulty of regeneration.
Currently, fossil fuels are the most widely used energy source in the world. It is used to generate electrical energy but above all it is also used to generate mechanical energy (cars, heat engines, etc.)
The theory that fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust for millions of years was first introduced…
Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources because they require millions of years for their formation in a natural way. Due to their high calorific power they are useful energy sources to generate thermal energy and their use has allowed the great economic and demographic growth linked to the industrial revolution of the 19th century. Although now they are fundamental for our economy. In 2007, the combustion of coal, oil and natural gas accounted for 86.4% of the world's primary energy. However, its combustion is one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution and global warming, which…
Non renewable energies are the methods of obtaining energy through a source of exhaustible energy. The concept of non-renewable energy is taken into account at the scale of human life, since certain processes, such as the accumulation of carbon, have taken up to five hundred million years.
In general, non renewable energy is what consumes some type of fuel (oil, coal, uranium ...). While renewable energy uses other types of energy resources (solar radiation, the kinetic energy of the wind, the force of water, the movement of the tides, etc.). Although properly speaking some fuels, in…
The generation of fuel through solar energy is a technique based on generating chemical reactions using solar radiation. These chemical processes allow the generation of energy that would otherwise come from a source of fossil fuel or nuclear energy.
A great advantage of the generation of solar fuels is that they can be transported and stored easily. However, adding a step in the generation of electric power (fuel generation) implies a reduction in efficiency: adding an additional step between the storage of energy and the production of electricity drastically decreases the…
For the conversion of fossil energy into electrical energy, the technology of a thermal power plant is often used. At the moment in which a thermal power station is fossil fuels fossilized from a source of non-renewable energy generation.
A thermal power plant (or thermoelectric plant) is a plant that generates electricity by transforming heat. Historically heat energy is converted into electricity by transferring heat to a working fluid and then transforming the energy of this fluid into mechanical energy. Finally, mechanical energy is transformed into electricity. The…
Coal is a fossil fuel that is used to obtain fossil energy through its combustion. The thermodynamic properties of coal allow obtaining a large amount of heat energy during its combustion process.
Coal is a natural resource limited. The generation of coal is a process of several million years, while the consumption of this energy resource is very fast. For this reason, coal is considered a non-renewable source of energy.
Coal is a sedimentary rock of organic origin, black or dark brown. It is used mainly as a fossil fuel because of its high calorific value…
Fossil energy is the energy that comes from the combustion of fossil fuels.
It is a source of non-renewable energy because it is not an inexhaustible energy source nor regenerates at the same rate at which it is consumed.
Fossil fuels are formed from organic substances that have accumulated in the ground. These substances can be the remains of plants, animals and other living things. Over the years, millions of years, they undergo certain physical and chemical transformations until they reach the point where they become components of which it is easy to convert them into energy:…
Nuclear energy is the energy that is obtained from the division (nuclear fission) or from the union (nuclear fusion) of an atom. Despite the existence of a large number of applications related to nuclear energy (medicine, industry, transport, etc.), the main application of this technology is the generation of electrical energy.
Electricity of nuclear origin is generated in nuclear power plants. At present, all nuclear power plants operate through nuclear fission reactions. The nuclear fuel they use is usually uranium or plutonium (by an artificial process). Because…
The solar thermal energy consists of the use of the energy coming from the Sun to transfer it to a medium that carries heat, generally water or air.
Among the different applications of solar thermal energy there is the possibility of generating electrical energy. The current technology allows heating water with solar radiation to produce steam and then obtain electrical energy.
Although the principle of operation is very similar there are two main applications of solar thermal energy:
- Use of solar thermal energy in homes and small installations…
Natural gas is a source of fossil energy, like coal or oil, it is constituted by a mixture of hydrocarbons, molecules formed by carbon and hydrogen atoms. Its calorific value varies greatly according to its composition, but the highest are between 8,500 and 10,200 kilocalories per cubic meter of natural gas.
Natural gas is a primary energy, or that can be obtained directly without transformation. The other primary energies are solar energy, coal and oil. It is the cleanest fossil energy in terms of waste and atmospheric emissions, and the most efficient fuel for obtaining electricity…
Thermal energy is the energy released in the form of heat. It can also be called heat energy. In a more technical way we can define thermal energy as part of the internal energy of a thermodynamic system in equilibrium that is proportional to its absolute temperature and is increased or decreased by energy transfer.
The thermal energy can be transformed using a thermal engine (a thermoelectric power plant uses thermal energy to generate electricity); or in mechanical work (for example, a car, airplane or ship engine).
The obtaining of thermal energy can imply an environmental…
Biomass energy is biological energy, and allows biological entities (living beings) to move, to have brain activity and food production and the synthesis of biological tissues.
Biomass energy is continuously retransformed cyclically. The typical bioenergetic cycle of plants is called the "Calvin cycle". The bioenergetic cycle of living beings is called the "Krebs cycle". In these cycles the transformation of sugars occurs in other carbohydrates, the purpose of this transformation is the synthesis of very high energy concentration molecules, such as ATP and ADP. Technological…
The geothermal heat pump is an air conditioning system for buildings that exploits the heat exchange with the superficial subsoil, by means of a heat pump. Since the heat in the subsoil comes largely from the interior of the Earth, geothermal energy of low enthalpy is classified as a source of renewable energy, although the heat pump itself consumes electricity, generally produced from other sources of energy (for example, fossil fuels).
The heat pump allows the exchange of heat between a "source" at a lower temperature than the "well", or the point where the heat is introduced. In a…
Petroleum is a complex non-homogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons, composed / formed by hydrogen and carbon. The kinds of petroleums are very different from each other, can be from yellow and liquid to black and viscous. These differences are due to the relationships between the types of hydrocarbons. It is a non-renewable natural resource, raw material for numerous materials and products and, as a fossil fuel, the main primary energy source in the world.
The chemical components of petroleum are separated and obtained by distillation through a refinery process. From it different products…
A hydroelectric power plant is a set of hydraulic engineering working located in a certain succession, together with a series of suitable machines. The objective of a hydroelectric power plant is to obtain electricity from the potential energy of moving bodies of water. This is what is called hydropower.
The energy produced by hydroelectric plants must be classified in all aspects as renewable energy because, at least in theory, water can be reused endlessly for the same purpose without undergoing a purification process. The concept of renewability is subordinated to the constancy of…
In the field of renewable energies, there are other renewable technologies in the development phase. Cellulosic ethanol, geothermal energy from hot and dry rock and marine energy are technologies that can complement traditional photovoltaic solar energy, wind energy or hydropower, for example.
However, these technologies are not yet sufficiently developed or have limited commercialization. Many of these new sources of renewable energy have great potential, but they still have a long way to go in research and development.
There are numerous organizations within the academic…
Thermosolar energy is a technology to generate electricity or electricity by thermal energy from the Sun (solar heat). It is a type of solar thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is characterized by using solar radiation to heat a fluid. This hot fluid (usually water) can be used for many applications such as heating or hot water (DHW). But another application that can be given is the generation of electric power.
This type of energy is also often called thermoelectric power.
This process of electricity generation takes place in the so-called thermoelectric solar or solar thermal…
The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling, a Scottish priest. The goal was to get a less dangerous engine than the steam engine.
The operation of the Stirling engine is based on the expansion and contraction of a gas that can be helium, hydrogen, nitrogen or air. This gas is forced to cycle cyclically from a cold source where it contracts to a hot source where it expands. It is considered as a thermal engine (thermodynamic engine) due to the presence of a temperature gradient between the two thermal sources.
Originally, the Stirling engine was conceived as an…
Hydropower is a source of renewable energy that uses water to generate energy. Normally, it uses the potential energy of water at a certain height to generate turbines and with them, electricity.
The mechanism of operation is to take advantage of the potential energy of water at a certain height, it is dropped to convert this energy into kinetic energy. With the kinetic energy of water a turbine that is connected to an electric generator is activated.
Generally, the installations responsible for hydroelectric production are hydroelectric power plants. Usually these facilities…