# Charge

## Electricity

We have two definitions of electricity depending on whether ns refer to physical phenomena on a macroscopic scale or on a microscopic scale.

With the term electricity we refer generically to all physical phenomena in a macroscopic scale that involves one of the fundamental interactions, the electromagnetic force, with particular reference to electrostatics. At the microscopic level, these phenomena are due to the interaction between charged particles on a molecular scale: the protons in the nucleus of atoms or ionized molecules and the electrons. The typical macroscopic effects of such…

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## Power Accumulators

In the autonomous electricity supply facilities, it is necessary to store the energy captured during the hours of solar radiation in order to cover supply during the hours when there is no (daily cycle and seasonal cycle).

Features accumulators:

• Electric batteries have a very important and fundamental to the proper functioning and duration of a solar photovoltaic installation function.
• They must have sufficient capacity to ensure supply of electricity during periods of clouds (autonomy of installation).
• It is reversible electrochemical systems…

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## Charge Controllers

Although in principle it seems that in an installation of photovoltaic solar energy just need solar modules and batteries, there is a key element in these facilities is what ensures that, in the charging process as in the discharge accumulators, is made so that they are always within the correct operating conditions: the charge controller.

Solar panels are designed so that they can give a higher than the end voltage battery charging voltage. This ensures that the solar panels are always able to charge the battery, even when the temperature of…

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## Rated Voltage

In electricity, the rated voltage of an electrical device is the voltage that must not be exceeded in normal operation. The nominal adjective is because that tension usually serves to characterize the device, to name it. The nominal value indicates the theoretical or ideal value of anything that can be quantified, as opposed to the real value, which is what is obtained in a given measurement.

Another definition of rated voltage: The rated voltage is the specific potential difference for which a device or installation is designed.

As it is a nominal value it implies that the voltage…

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## Solar Batteries

The batteries in a photovoltaic solar energy system is to accumulate the energy produced by the photovoltaic panels during the hours of Sun to be able to use it at night or on cloudy days.

The use of batteries also allows to provide a higher current intensity than a functioning photovoltaic panel can offer. This would be the case if several electrical appliances were used at the same time.

A battery consists of small 2V accumulators integrated in the same element; Has direct current at 6, 12, 24 or 48V. The accumulator is the cell that stores energy through an electrochemical…

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## Photovoltaic

We refer to the photovoltaic effect in everything related to obtaining energy through the action of light.

The most used light source for photovoltaic installations is that coming from the Sun, that is, solar energy. Although there are small devices, such as calculators, that can work with artificial light.

Photovoltaic solar energy

Solar photovoltaic energy is a methodology for obtaining electrical energy thanks to photoelectric cells. It is a renewable energy since its energy source, the Sun, is considered inexhaustible.

Photoelectric cells are the main component…

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## Ampere-Hour

An ampere-hour is an electric charge unit. It is represented by Ah. The ampere-hour is not part of the International System, since the hour is not either.

The ampere-hour indicates the amount of electrical charge that passes through the terminals of a battery (or an electrical conductor) providing an electric current of 1 ampere (A) for one hour (h).

The ampere-hour is used to measure the capacity of a battery, ie the amount of electricity it can store during charging and return during discharge.

A battery that has, for example, a capacity of 100 Ah, theoretically can give…

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## Charge Controller

The charge controller is a separate element of the autonomous photovoltaic systems. It is also known as charge controller.

Being an installation in which the energy generated by the photovoltaic modules is not supplied directly to the mains will be needed batteries.

To charge batteries safely charge controllers play a key role in both the loading and discharge the battery.

The charge controller is limiting the energy that is supplied to the battery and when the battery is charged, if he continues to supply energy, become hot and could create a dangerous situation.

In…

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## Isolated Photovoltaic Installations

These installations are mainly used in locations where there is no access to the electricity grid and it is more economical to install a photovoltaic system than to lay a line between the grid and the point of consumption. The electricity generated is intended for self consumption.

The main applications of isolated systems are:

• Electrification of houses and buildings, mainly for lighting and low-power appliances
• Street lighting
• Agricultural and livestock applications
• Water Pumping and Treatment
• Telephony antennas isolated from the network
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## Photovoltaic Effect

The photovoltaic effect is the photoelectric effect characterized by the production of an electric current between two pieces of different material that are in contact and exposed to light or, in general, to electromagnetic radiation.

The photovoltaic effect consists of converting sunlight into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic cells. These cells are semiconductor devices made from pure silicon with the addition of impurities of certain chemical elements. Photovoltaic cells are capable of generating electricity in direct current, using solar radiation as a source.

This…

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## Photovoltaic Cell

In electronics, a photoelectric cell or a photovoltaic cell is an electrical / electronic device that converts the incident energy of solar radiation into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic cells are the basic components of photovoltaic modules, which are solar panels capable of generating electrical energy from solar radiation. It is therefore the essential basic element for this type of renewable energy.

Compounds of a material that has a photoelectric effect absorb photons of light and emit electrons. When these free electrons are captured, the result is an…

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## Ampere

The ampere (symbol: A) is the base unit SI that is used to measure the intensity of the electric current.

It takes its name from the French physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836), one of the leading scholars of electromagnetism.

Being one of the seven basic SI units, all other electromagnetic units are derived from it. By definition, an ampere is the intensity of an electric current that, if maintained in two parallel linear conductors of infinite length and negligible cross-section, placed one meter apart…

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## Components Of Autonomous Photovoltaic Installations

Autonomous photovoltaic installations are those installations that are isolated from the electricity grid. All the electrical energy generated by the solar panels is consumed directly.

This type of photovoltaic installations are designed for the cases in which the cost of maintenance and installation of power lines is not profitable. For example, this would be the case of mountain refuge.

The main element of autonomous photovoltaic installations is the photovoltaic panel. The photovoltaic panel is responsible for transforming solar radiation into electrical energy…

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