Geometric figures are defined as a set of continuous and non-empty points to create non-deformable and inextensible shapes.
A geometric shape is the abstract entity around which geometry and other related branches of mathematics are articulated. Actually, this topic is already beginning to work with students in early childhood education.
Basically, the geometric figure can be defined as a continuous set of points and relationships between the same points.
What Are the Fundamental Geometric Figures?
To define geometric figures it is necessary to use some fundamental concepts from which all figures can be obtained.
These elements are also geometric figures and are as follows:
Point: The point is the most elementary geometric figure. The point has no dimensions, it is called a dimensionless geometric figure and a position in the plane is described.
Line: infinite set of points that travel the same direction, without beginning or end.
Ray: an infinite set of points that travel the same direction, having a beginning but not an end.
Segment: part of a line delimited by two points. Segments are characterized by a single dimension: length.
Polygon: A polygon is a geometric figure formed by a succession of straight lines in a flat plane forming a closed chain of closed segments. Triangles, squares, rectangles, and pentagons are examples of polygons.
Angle: part of the plane between two half lines that have a common origin.
Polyhedra: they are geometric bodies that have polygons as faces that are in different planes.
Rotational solids: solid geometric figures generated by rotating a plane figure around a straight line.
Examples of Plane Geometric Figures
In this type of figure, all the points all belong to the same plane. Below we name some of the most prominent figures:
Circle: it is formed by all the points equidistant from a fixed point that form a curved line.
Sphere: it is a circle in revolution rotating by an axis that passes through its center.
Ellipse: it is an achievement of curved lines. The sum of the distance between any point in the figure to two other fixed points is constant. The planets of the solar system orbit the Sun in elliptical orbits.
Triangles: polygons made up of three sides and three angles. The sum of the interior angles always add up to 180 degrees.
Square: polygon formed by four sides and four equal angles.
Rectangle: quadrilateral with sides perpendicular to two by two.
Trapezoid: polygon with four sides, two of which are parallel.
Pentagon: polygon formed by five sides forming equal angles.
Examples of Geometric Bodies
Geometric bodies are geometric figures whose points belong to a three-dimensional space.
Some examples of geometric bodies are:
Prism: solid that has two equal polygons as bases arranged in parallel planes.
Cube: polyhedron with 6 square and congruent faces arranged in two parallel planes.
Pyramid: it has a polygon (any) as a base and triangles as side faces.
Cylinder: obtained by rotating a rectangle around one side.
Sphere: obtained by rotating a semicircle around its diameter.
Cone: obtained from the rotation of a right triangle around one of its two legs.